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APES Ch 21&22 Lytle

Lytle - APES Ch 21 & 22 Vocab

channelization An engineering technique that consists of straightening, deepening, widening, clearing, or lining
consumptive use A type of off-stream water use. This water is consumed by plants and animals or in industrial processes or evaporates during use. It is not returned to its source.
desalination The removal of salts from seawater or brackish water so that the water can be used for purposes such as agriculture, industrial processes, or human consumption.
effluent stream Type of stream where flow is maintained during the dry season by groundwater seepage into the channel.
groundwater Water found beneath the Earth's surface within the zone of saturation, below the water table.
influent stream Type of stream that is everywhere above the groundwater table and flows in direct response to precipitation. Water from the channel moves down to the water table, forming a recharge mound.
in-stream use A type of water use that includes navigation, generation of hydroelectric power, fish and wildlife habitat, and recreation.
off-stream use Type of water use where water is removed from its source for a particular use.
overdraft Groundwater withdrawal when the amount pumped from wells exceed the natural rate of replenishment
sustainable water use Use of water resources that does not harm the environment and provides for the existence of high-quality water for future generations.
water budget Inputs and outputs of water for a particular system (a drainage basin, region, continent, or the entire Earth).
water conservation Practices designed to reduce the amount of water we use.
wetlands Comprehensive term for landforms such as salt marshes, swamps, bogs, prairie potholes, and vernal pools. Their common feature is that they are wet at least part of the year and as a result have a particular type of vegetation and soil.
acid mine drainage Acidic water that drains from mining areas (mostly coal but also metal mines). The acidic water may enter surface water resources, causing environmental damage.
advanced wastewater treatment Treatment of wastewater beyond primary and secondary procedures. May include sand filters, carbon filters, or application of chemicals to assist in removing potential pollutants such as nutrients from the wastewater stream.
biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) A measure of the amount of oxygen necessary to decompose organic material in a unit volume of water. As the amount of organic waste in water increases, more oxygen is used, resulting in an increase in this factor.
bioremediation A method of treating groundwater pollution problems that utilizes microorganisms in the ground to consume or break down pollutants.
cultural eutrophication Human-induced eutrophication that involves nutrients such as nitrates or phosphates that cause a rapid increase in the rate of plant growth in ponds, lakes, rivers, or the ocean.
ecosystem effect Effects that result from interactions among different species, effects of species on chemical elements in their environment, and conditions of the environment.
environmental law A field of law concerning the conservation and use of natural resources and the control of pollution.
eutrophication Increase in the concentration of chemical elements required for living things. Increased nutrients may lead to an algal or plankton bloom that become so thick that light cannot penetrate the water. See the text for more info.
fecal coliform bacteria Standard measure of microbial pollution and an indicator of disease potential for a water source.
nonpoint sources Sources of pollutants that are diffused and intermittent and are influenced by factors such as land use, climate, hydrology, topography, native vegetation, and geology.
outbreaks A sudden occurrence, usually refers to a disease or disorder.
point sources Sources of pollution such as smokestacks, pipes, or accidental spills that are readily identified & stationary. They're often thought to be easier to recognize and control than are area sources, but that is not always the case. See text for more info.
primary treatment Removal of large particles and organic materials from wastewater through screening.
secondary treatment Use of biological processes to degrade wastewater in a treatment facility.
wastewater renovation and conservation cycle Applying wastewater to the land. In some cases, treated wastewater is applied to crops, and as the water infiltrates through the soil layer it's naturally purified. The water's reused by pumping it out of the ground for municipal or agricultural uses.
wastewater treatment Process of treating wastewater (primarily sewage) in specially designed plants that accept municipal wastewater. Generally divided into three categories: primary treatment, secondary treatment, and advanced wastewater treatment.
water reuse The use of wastewater following some sort of treatment. Water reuse may be inadvertent, indirect, or direct.
dissolved oxygen (DO) A relative measure of the amount of oxygen that is carried in a given medium.
salt water intrusion The movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers. Most often, it's caused by groundwater pumping from coastal wells, or from construction of navigation channels or oil field canals. Can also occur as a result of a natural process like a storm surge
algal bloom The rapid excessive growth of algae, generally caused by high nutrient levels and favourable conditions. Can result in deoxygenation of the water mass when the algae die, leading to the death of aquatic flora and fauna.
Created by: jdlytle