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A theory is a: Set of concepts and generalizations
The scientific method contains all but one of the following techniques:a. Observation b. Systematic collection of data c. Making data available for review d. Selecting data to prove a point Selecting data to prove a point
Correlation differs from causation in that correlation: Only indicates a possible causal relation
The social sciences have: Problems conducting laboratory experiments, as do the natural sciences
History is often NOT considered a social science because: Its primary concern is to record events of the past
Once a social scientist has formulated the hypothesis, what is the next step of the scientific method? Developing a research design
The research method in which the researcher controls one variable and observes and records the results is called: Experiment
A sample is: A subset of a population
Statistics that allow researchers to generalize to a population from a sample are called: Inferential
The hypothesis is a statement of: A tentative statement of a topic that is subject to testing
Scientific theories: Are open to challenge
Repeating a research project is called: Replication
An anthropologist living with a group of people and engaging in some of their rituals is using the following research method: Participant observation
Experiments are: Based on controlling a variable and observing the results
During the Enlightenment of the 18th century: A number of scholars believed human social life could be studied scientifically
Variables that exercise influence on other variables are called: Independent variables
Scientific conclusions are: Relative to time and place of study and subject to revision
An intensive study of an individual or a small group is made by using the following research method: Case study
If a broad spectrum of the population is surveyed at a given time, the study is called: Cross-sectional
The notion that social institutions reinforce and legitimize class divisions is derived from: Karl Marx
The most fundamental facto(s) in stratification is (are): Education and income
The social science that deals with human use of the natural environment is: Geography
The structural-functionalist explanation of social stratification asserts that: There is a limited number of skilled, talented people; thus, they should be rewarded
Which are the dimensions of stratification? Class, status, and power
Marx’s view of social class is that: Private ownership of the means of production perpetuates class divisions
Political science has taken a turn toward the social sciences in its studies of: The social impact of government on groups and individuals
Social Darwinists believed that: Only the strongest persons should control the resources of a society
Max Weber believed that: Class is closely related to life chances
The study of human group behavior is the definition of: Sociology
The discipline that studies such disparate subjects as the environment, religion, politics, organization, and so on, is: Sociology
Humans exhibit: Biological drives
Studies of siblings who shared parents, social class, and everyday experiences have shown that they: View the same experiences differently
Absence of body contact and stimulation in infants inhibits: Development of higher learning functions
Successful socialization for humans requires: Contact with other humans
Specialized socialization occurs most frequently in: Occupational groups or organizations
Darwin’s theory lacked an explanation of: How traits were transmitted to offspring
When one knows the roles that one is expected to play and is willing and able to do so, one is: Successfully socialized
Socialization involves the use of which process to turn a “horde of barbarians” into productive human beings? Symbolic and physical interaction
Recent research supports the notion that mother-infant bonding: Has a biological basis
The primary agent of socialization is the: Family
The emergence of the self as a result of interaction with other is a common thread in ALL BUT ONE of the following theories: a. Lookingglass self b. Symbolic interactionism c. Behaviorism d. Developmental theory Behaviorism
Natural selection refers to: Having a trait or traits useful in a change of environment
Cooley’s looking glass self refers to: A person’s perception as to what others think of him/her
Which is NOT an aim of the process of socialization? a. To teach infants to sit, stand, walk, and run in that order b. To teach infants the fundamentals of life in society c. To instill societal aspirations d. To transmit skills important in the socie To teach infants to sit, stand, walk, and run in that order
Personality must be considered as: Interplay between environment and learned behavior
In Erikson’s system, each of the stages present the individual with: Crises of self-definition
Maturation is a term used by developmental psychologies to refer to: Physical (biological) development
The succession of stages inPiagets model of cognitive development is: a.Early childhood,play,concrete operational,and formal operational b.Sensorimotor,pre-operational,intuitive operational c.Sensorimotor,intuitive operational,concrete operational d.N None of the above
Freudian psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the importance of the: Unconscious level of personality
Gestalt psychology looks at: Behavior as a whole
Which of the following refers to Piaget’s developmental theory? Personality development proceeds in stages related to sensory-motor maturation
According to Piaget’s developmental theory: a child of eight can master addition
Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development claims: Universal validity
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are associated with the following theories of personality: Stressing self-concept and self-actualization
What is one difference between Freud’s developmental stages and Erikson’s? Freud stopped at adolescence
Kohlberg’s three stages of moral development are: Pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional
Personality may be seen as a circular system in that: Personality affects roles and vice-versa
A major criticism of Freud’s theory is: His overemphasis on early childhood
Individuals who become inmates of a total institution undergo the process of: Resocialization
Cooley’s looking glass self refers to: A person’s perception as to what other think of him/her
According to George Herbert Mead, the self is: An indivual’s selfconcept of selfawareness
Deviance is defined as: Behavior that passes the limits of what the social group tolerates
A mother who says “If you hang out with bums, you will become a bum” favors which theory of deviance? Differential association
The “significant others: of Mead’s theory are: Important because they provide the initial role models
The theory of symbolic interactionism in personality formation is associated with: George Herbert Mead
The theory speculating that every society develops a number of cultural goals for members to attain, but that attainment is not possible for all, is called the: Anomie theory
The newest challenge to the family’s formerly exclusive claim to the socialization of its children has come from: The day-care center
People who are important in shaping your self-concept and whose approval you wish to have are: Significant others
Merton attributed deviance to “anomie,” meaning: Lack of legitimate means to attain group goals
According to Mead, the generalized other is: Societal norms
Defense mechanisms function to: Deflect anxiety
Socialization happens in: Persons of all ages
Admiration of power and intolerance of differences is linked to a: Authoritarian personality
The most fundamental factor(s) in stratification is (are): Education and income
Pluralist societies depend upon one of the following for their existence: Coexistence
When a minority group accepts the culture of the dominant group, it is called: Assimilation
The most pernicious aspect of sexist ideology is: The pervasiveness of the ideology
The most obvious effect of sexism on women has been that they: Have been denied alternatives to the roles of wives and mothers
Which of the following is a criticism of Marxist theory? Inequality is a motivating force for people to rise in the stratification system
Max Weber believed that: Class is closely related to life chances
Stressing the desirability of retaining each group’s cultural distinctiveness is part of the ideology of: Cultural pluralism
Maintaining a group’s distinctive customs and identity is called: Cultural pluralism
Marx’s view of social class is that: Private ownership of the means of production perpetuates class divisions
American gender role socialization research has concluded that almost all children know their sex and how each sex is to behave by the age of: Three or four
When parents give rewards for certain sex role behavior, the process is called conditioning, and is the basis for: The social learning theory
According to Karl Marx: Classes are determined by the relationship of a group in society to the means of production
According to Gordon Allport, much prejudice is based on: Economic competition among different groups
In theory, communism calls for: Abolition of private property
Totalitarian regimes: Control the individual socially and politically
The author of a famous treaties on the origin of the state characterized existence in the “state of nature” as: “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”
Traditional autocracy has been replaced by: Authoritarian or totalitarian ideologies
The state has the following relationship to force: It has a monopoly on it
The concept of human inequality: Underlies fascism
Legal-rational authority tends to be characteristic of: Heterogeneous, multicultural societies
Legal-rational authority is characteristic of: Urban industrial, developed societies
The difference between government and state is that: Government is a process that includes the people who exercise political power
The emergence of the state as a result of a “social contract” is the hypothesis found in the work of: Thomas Hobbes
According to French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau, the state emerged: a. After the establishment of private property b. Because people began to fight among themselves c. All of the above d. None of the above All of the above
The democratic state is based on the social contract theories of Locke and Rousseau. These theories maintain that: The people allow themselves to be governed for their own good
Fascism first emerged: In Italy, under the leadership of Benito Mussolini
Conflict theorists see the state’s function as: Protecting the interest of the ruling elite only
Functionalists approach the state as a tool to: Maintain order
Created by: amypatel1228