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Genetics & Heredity

genetic information (DNA) is passed from parent to offspring during sexual reproduction
sperm or egg contains one-half of the genetic material needed to create a new organism.
Heredity passing of traits from one generation to another
chromosomes A structure found in the nucleus of a cell that contains the genetic information (DNA)
genes A segment of DNA found on a chromosome that determines the inheritance of a particular trait
allele Genes for a specific trait generally come in pairs, one gene from the pair is called an ________.
genotype the set of genes carried by the organism (TT, Tt,tt)
phenotypes the physical expression of the genes
dominant trait A trait that will always be expressed in the phenotype.
Alleles for dominant traits are represented by capital letters.
recessive trait A trait that will only be expressed in the phenotype if two recessive alleles are present.
Alleles for recessive traits are represented by lowercase letters.
Punnett square a tool used to predict the ratio or percentage of the possible genes that an offspring will have based on the genes of the parent
hybrid the two alleles are different (Tt)
monohybrid cross A cross that shows the inheritance of a single characteristic
purebred the two alleles are the same (TT or tt)
inherited trait a genetically determined characteristic that distinguishes one organism from another organism
environmental factors temperature, nutrients, injuries, disease, exposure to sun, or living conditions
Created by: Ms. Phillips