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Restorative Art

Final Qtr 1

Care of the deceased to recreate natural form and color Restorative Art
Anatomical study of the face and features Physiognomy
Early restorative artists tried plaster of paris to repair wounds, what were the problems with this? It was heavy, it would crack and absorb body fluids
Early restorative artists tried clay and putty, what were the problems with these? There were color problems and they couldn't cosmetize over it
Early restorative artists tried skin grafts, what were some of the problems with this? The skin would dehydrate quickly and they had to suture it on
Early restorative artists tried parafin, what were some of the problems with this? It hardened quickly, it was hard, and they couldn't cosmetize over it
Early restorative artists tried soap, what were some of the problems with this? It didn't stick, and they couldn't cosmetize over it
Name the early names for restorative art Dermasurgery, Plastic Surgery, Demi-surgery
What are the 4 restorations that you do not need permission for? 1) Reducing swelling/distention 2) Eliminating leakage of body fluids 3) Bleaching tissue discolorations 4) Tissue Building
What constitutes as major restoration? It requires a lot of time to do, it covers an extensive scope/area, additional skill is required
What constitutes as minor restoration? It will take a half hour or less, it covers a small area, it takes little skill
Most common characteristic of a feature or part Norm
Exception to the norm; anatomical anomaly Anomaly
Toward the front of the body, front of a point of reference Anterior
Toward the back of the body, behind a point of reference Posterior
Toward the head of the body or above a point of reference Superior
Toward the feet of the body or below a point of reference Inferior
Toward the middle or mid-line Medial
Away from the middle or on a side of the body Lateral
Both sides Bilateral
Seen directly by the observer in anatomical position Frontal View
90 degrees away from the front, one side or the other Profile
Superior to inferior; up & down; perpendicular Vertical
Side to side at right angles to mid-line; transverse Horizontal
Slanted or at any angle other than a right angle to the vertical Oblique
Jutting out of a part or structure in comparison with a background plane or other part or structure; coming at the observer Projection
Moving backward of a structure or part in comparison to a foreground plane or part or structure; away from the observer Recession
Curving or bulging outward or forward from a background plane Convex
Curving or sinking inward or backward from a foreground plane Concave
Top or bottom of a curved surface where the direction changes Crest of a Curvature
State of being out of balance or alignment Asymmetry
What is the purpose of bone in restorative art? Support and shape
What shape is the skull? Oval (egg) Shaped *Posterior part is wider than the anterior *Superior part is wider than the inferior
Approximately how wide is the skull? Approx. 2/3 of its length
Name the cranial bones and how many there are 1 Frontal, 2 Parietal, 2 Temporal, 1 Occipital = 6
Name the facial bones and how many there are 2 Nasal, 2 Zygomatic, 2 Maxillary, 1 Mandible = 7
What are the landmarks of the occipital bone? Foramen Magnum, External Occipital Protuberance, Superior Nuchal Line, Occipital Condyles
How is the foramen magnum used in restorative art? To restore decapitation
Name the two cervical vertebrae that articulate with the occipital condyles C1 (Atlas) articulates directly & C2 (Axis) articulates with C1
Name the sutures that border the parietal bones Mid-sagital, Lambdoidal, Squamosal, Coronal
Name the landmark of the parietal bones The parietal eminence *This is where the widest part of the cranium is measured
Name the landmarks of the temporal bones Squama, External Auditory Meatus, Mandibular Fossa, Mastoid Process, Zygomatic Arch
What is the most posterior and inferior part of the temporal bone? Mastoid Process
Where is the widest part of the neck measured? Mastoid Process
Where do you measure the widest part of the face as a whole? Between the zygomatic arches
Name the landmarks of the frontal bone Frontal Eminences, Supercilliary Arches, Supraorbital Margins/Ridges, Glabella, Lines of the Temple
What degree is the interior angle of the lines of the temple? 110 degrees
What is the most superior and anterior bone of the cranium? Frontal Bone
Name the two bones that form the nasal septum Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone & vomer bone
Is the septum perfectly centered? Nope, usually a natural curve to the left, asymmetrical
Where do you measure the widest part of the anterior plane of the face? Between the Prominences of the Cheek
Where is the naturally warm area of the face? Where the zygomatic bones are
Name the landmarks of the Maxillary Bones Nasal Spine, Frontal Processes, Alveolar Processes, Palatine Process
The hard palate is also known as the... Roof of the Mouth
What is the most anterior and inferior bone of the skull? Mandible
What are the two parts of the mandible? The ramus and the body
Name the landmarks of the mandible Alveolar Processes, Mental Eminence, Incisive Fossa, Angle of the Mandible, Mandibular Condyle
What is the normal range of the angle of the mandible? 110*-120* in an adult 140* in the elderly
Projection of the jaws or a part of the jaws beyond the upper part of the face Prognathism
The whole upper jaw projects forward Maxillary Prognathism
The body of the mandible is longer/projects forward and the lower teeth can be in front of the upper teeth Mandibular Prognathism
"Overbite"; Only the alveolar margin projects forward Alveolar Prognathism
"Buck Teeth"; The teeth are growing out at the wrong angle Dental Prognathism
The area under the nose, the 4 incisors project forward Infranasal Prognathism
At what angle do furrows usually develop in relation to the muscle striations? At right angles
What happens to muscle tone as you age? It decreases
The stationary point of muscle attachment Origin of the Muscle
Point of attachment where the pull of the muscle is applied Insertion of the Muscle
What the muscle does The Action of the Muscle
Alignment of the fibers of muscle "Grain of the Muscle" Striation
Thickest part of the muscle between the origin and the insertion of the muscle Belly of the Muscle
Tough fibrous connective tissue; attaches muscle to another structure Tendon
When muscle has two fleshy parts separated by a sheet of tendon Double-Bellied
Type of muscle that surrounds a natural body opening; uses purse-string action Sphincter Muscle
Muscle that has multiple origins but one insertion point Radiating Muscle
Muscles that reverse the action of each other Antagonistic Muscles
Broad, flat, thin covering of muscle made up of the same tissue as tendon Aponeurosis
"Muscle of Surprise" that raises the eyebrows and causes Transverse Frontal Sulci Frontalis Muscle
Muscle that covers the top of the parietal bones and part of the frontal bone Galea Aponeurotica
A radiating muscle with a semi-circular origin on the temporal bone; **strongest chewing muscle Temporalis Muscle
A sphincter muscle that forms the eyelids and closes the eyelids; form Optic Facial Sulci "Crows Feet" Orbicularis Oculi
Muscle that draws the eyebrows in and down and causes Interciliary Vertical Sulci **"Frowning Muscle" Corrigator
Long, thin flap of muscle that inserts into the tarsis and lifts the eyelid Levator Palpebrae Superioris
Muscle that runs down the dorsum of the nose and causes Transverse Interciliary Sulci Procerus
"Nasalis Muscle" that flares the nostrils Depressor Nasalis
Sphincter muscle that forms the integumentary lips and part of the mucous membrane; form Labial Sulci and where the Philtrum is located Orbicularis Oris
"Common Elevator" that raises the upper lip and wing of the nose; medial head of the quadratus Levator Labii Superioris Alaeque Nasi
The main muscle that raises and moves the upper lip; intermediate head of the quadratus Levator Labii Superioris
"Smiling Muscle"; lateral head of the quadratus Zygomaticus Minor
"Snarling Muscle" that lifts the corner of the mouth Levator Anguli Oris
"Laughing Muscle" Zygomaticus Major
"Buglers/Trumpeters Muscle" that is the deepest cheek muscle Buccinator
Muscle just on top of the buccinator that is used for chewing and articulation Masseter
Most superficial cheek muscle that pulls the mouth bilaterally Risorius
"Triangularis"; pulls down the corners of the mouth Depressor Anguli Oris
Prime mover of the lower lip Depressor Labii Inferioris
Muscle that raises and protrudes the lower lip and gives fullness, shape, and protrusion to the chin Mentalis Muscle
"Shock & Horror Muscle" Platysma
Muscle that attaches to the mastoid process where the widest part of the neck is measured; guide during embalming for the carotid artery Sterno-cleido-mastoid Muscle (SCM)
The two muscles that form the cords of the neck as we age The Di-gastricus & Omo-hyoidious
Name the 4 types of subcutaneous tissue 1) Deep Fascia 2) Superficial Fascia 3) Adipose 4) Glandular
Where is the thinnest skin found? The eyelids
Where are ceruminous glands found? In the ear
Connects the lip to the gum Frenulum
What are the most common glands in the skin? Sudoriferous & Sebacious
Name the two layers of the skin Dermis & Epidermis
Name the deepest layer of the skin Dermis
Name the most superficial layer of the skin Epidermis
What are some factors that affect the condition of the skin? Aging, Sun Exposure, Weather
The primary pigment in the skin; dark brown, black Melanin
In which cells do you find melanin? Melanocytes
Exposure to sun can increase the amount of melanin, "Suntan", what is this called? Melanosis
"Liver Spots", local and permanent concentrations of melanin Chloasma
"Vitiligo", localized absence or permanent destruction of melanocytes Leukoderma
"Albino", congenital complete absence of melanocytes Albinism
Mole; increase in collagen and melanocytes Nevus
"Freckles", local and temporary concentration of melanocytes Lentigo
Yellow pigment usually found in adipose tissue Carotene
Found in the blood in the capillaries and adds a reddish undertone Hematin
"Port Wine Stain" "Strawberry Stain" Angioma
Rules of proportions created by the greeks Canon of Beauty
Vertical measurement Length
Horizontal measurement Width
Vertical measurement of a feature or part of a feature Height
What is the height of a person equivalent to? 7.5-8 head lengths
Name the thirds that the face can be divided into Hairline to the Eyebrow Eyebrow to the Base of the Nose Base of the Nose to the Base of the Chin
Which third is the ear located? Middle third
Is it true that the angle of inclination of the ear, the ramus, and the forehead all match? Yes
Name the thirds that the lower third of the face can be divided into Base of the Nose to the Line of Lip Closure Line of Lip Closure to the Top of the Chin Top of the Chin to the Bottom of the Chin
From zygomatic arch to zygomatic arch, how many eye widths is the face? 5 eye widths
From inner corner of the eye to inner corner is approx how many eye widths? 1 eye width
From outer corner of the eye to zygomatic arch is how many eye widths? 1 eye width
The width of the nose is approx how many eye widths? 1 eye width
The mouth from corner to corner is how many eye widths? Approx 2 eye widths
Name the supplemental equalities Hairline to the Base of the Nose is 2/3 Base of the Nose to the Base of the Chin is 2/3 Tip of the nose to the ear passage is 2/3
Name the 3 basic profiles Convex, Concave, Vertical
Most common profile; the forehead recedes from the eyebrow and the chin recedes from the upper lip Convex Profile
The forehead doesn't recede and the chin doesn't recede; more like a straight line Vertical Profile
Least common profile; the forehead protrudes and the chin protrudes as well Concave Profile
Name the 6 variations on the 3 basic profiles Convex-Concave Concave-Convex Vertical-Convex Vertical-Concave Concave-Vertical Convex-Vertical
The most common face shape Oval
The "Infantine" face Round
The "Strong" face Square
The least common face shape Triangular
Name the 7 face shapes Oval, Round, Square, Oblong, Triangular, Inverted Triangle, Diamond
Name the two types of photographs Professional & Candid
Which profile view is the most preferred for restorative art? 3/4 view
Area/surface of the face lying at a right angle to the source of illumination and reflects the maximum amount of light Highlight
Surfaces that do not lie at right angles to the source of illumination or are obscured by other surfaces Shadow
Source of illumination is from above and anterior to the head; **Best source of light Normal/Natural Lighting
Like a spotlight, the light can be directed from any direction Direct Lighting
Least desirable lighting that can come from flashbulbs and gives the face a 2D effect Flat Lighting
Comparison of the 2 sides of the face or the 2 sides of a feature to observe and note the similarities and differences Bilateral View
Created by: sbarton