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Personality Chpt 15

learning change of behavior as a function of experience
behaviorism the only valid way to know about somebody is to watch what they do
functional analysis maps out exactly how behavior is a function of one's environmental situation
empiricism the idea that all knowledge comes from experience
associationism any two things, including ideas, become mentally associated as one if they are repeatedly experienced close together in time and space
hedonism people learn to seek pleasure and avoid pain
habituation the simplest way a behavior changes as a result of experience
classical conditioning ivan pavlov, mostly with animals, salivate to bell not food
learned helplessness feeling of anxiety due to unpredictability
respondant conditioning the CR is essentially passive with no impact of its own
operant conditioning learn to operate on its world in such a way as to change it to animal's advantage
reinforcement the behavior become more likely
punishment averse consequence that follows an act in order to stop it and prevent its repetition
how to punish availablity of alternatives, behavioral and situational specificity, timing and consistency, conditioning secondary punishing stimuli, avoiding mixed messages
dangers of punishment arousing emotion, hard to be consistent, hard to gage severity of punishment, misuse of power, motivates concealment
habit hierarchy behavior most likely to perform is at top and least is at bottom
drive state of tension that feels good when the tension is reduced
primary drives food, water, comfort, avoidance of pain
secondary drive positive drives for love, money, prestige, power
frustration-aggression hypothesis the natural, biological reaction of any person to being blocked from a goal
approach-avoidance conflict conflict between desires and fear and the way it can change over time
expectancy value theory behavioral decisions are determined not just by the prescence or size of reinforcement but by the beliefs of likely behavior
expectency an individuals belief about how likely it seems that the behavior will attain its goal
efficacy expectations belief that one can accomplish something but also one's interpretation of reality matters more than reality itself
self-efficacy what a person is capable of doing
self concept afffects your efficacy expectation in this domain
observational learning learning a behavior vicariously by seeing someone else do it
reciprocal determinism how people shape their environments