Question | Answer |
What characteristic is symbolized by “X”? | Independent Variable |
What characteristic is symbolized by “Y”? | Dependent Variable |
In Manpower, what is the most common independent variable? | Workload Factor (WLF) |
Why is WLF manipulated? | To see how it affects man-hours |
True or False: The most common dependent variable used in Manpower is the WLF | False-Man-hours |
Independent variables are plotted on what? | X-axis |
Dependent variables are plotted on what? | Y-axis |
What is the intersection of the X and Y value? | A Data Point |
On a scatter diagram, the horizontal line is the ______ and the vertical line is the _________. | X-axis and Y-axis |
What symbol is used to show data series that appear more than once? | A circle |
Name the 4 types of relationships between variables? | Positive/Direct, Negative/Inverse, Curvilinear and None |
What are the two types of curvilinear relationships? | Concave and Convex |
If X increases and Y increases, what type of relationship is this? | Positive/Direct |
If X decreases and Y increases, what type of relationship is this? | Negative/Inverse |
When do data points on a scatter diagram have no relationship? | When X and Y occur without influencing each other |
What are the different types of strengths between variables? | Strong, Weak and Unrelated |
How do you determine if a variable relationship is strong? | Data points will be strongly clustered about the mean |
What types of variable relationships can be strong? | Any type (positive, negative or curvilinear) |
What is the strength of a scatter diagram that is loosely scattered about the mean? | Weak |
If a change in X may produce a change in Y, the relationship is ______ | Weak |
Why will a scatter plot show no correlation even though the variables are related? | The data values are too close together |
What are equations created to predict man-hours from workload factors? | Models |
What are the two main selection criteria for an equation? | It must be realistic and economical |
What makes an equation realistic? | It must have a positive slope with no net loss of man-hours for an increase in workload |
What is used to develop manpower standards? | C&R |
Where is the C&R equation published? | In a manpower standard |
What is a statistical process used to measure the strength and type of relationship between variables? | C&R |
What is manipulated to see “what happens”? | Independent Variable |
Why will C&R no prove that a cause and effect relationship exists between WLF and man-hours? | because it is inferential |
Correlation and Regression are two separate and distinct processes, but are ______ | interrelated |
What does Correlation measure? | the strength and direction of the relationship between variables |
What type of equation is used for manpower standards? | Linear Bivariate |
What is the most direct relationship between two variables? | Linear equation |
What is the linear bivariate equation? | Yc=a + bX |
What is the y-intercept in a linear bivariate equation? | a |
What is the slope in a linear bivariate equation? | b |
What does “Y” represent? | The number of man-hours predicted by C&R given a WLF and number of man-hours currently used at the sample bases |
What are the two coefficients in a linear equation? | a and b |
In developing manpower standards, a regression equation is created for what? | Each WLF under study |
What is Step 1 of C&R? | Compute Summary Statistics |
What is Step 2 of C&R? | Estimate Summary Coefficients |
True or False: The value of the coefficient “b” must always be positive | True |
True or False: The value of the intercept must always be positive | False |
What is Step 3 of C&R? | Compute the Total Sum of Squares (TSS) |
What is the formula for TSS? | TSS=SSE + SSR |
What measures the total variation in sample data? | TSS |
Which type of variation is unacceptable? | SSE |
What type of variation is unexplained by the regression equation? | SSE |
What type of variation is explained by the regression equation? | SSR |
Why is SSR explained variation? | Because the variation among sample data occurs simply because the data was collected at different locations |
What is the goal of SSR? | For the value to be the greater proportion of the TSS value |
Is there a go/no-go associated with Step 3 (TSS) of C&R? | No |
What is the go/no-go associated with Step 2 (summary coefficients) of C&R? | the “b” value must be positive |
What is the symbol for the standard error of the estimate? | Syx |
What measures how the data points are scattered about the regression line? | Syx (standard error of the estimate) |
Standard error is a measure of ________ __________ | unexplained variation |
What is the similarity between standard deviation and standard error? | They are both absolute measures of dispersion |
Coefficient of Determination is also known as ______ | R2 |
What is a measure of explained variation? | R2 |
What must the value of R2 be to be included in a manpower standard? | Greater than or equal to 0.5 |
What allows comparison of the relative amounts of dispersion between sets of data? | Coefficient of Variation |
What is go/no-go for Coefficient of Variation? | It must be less than or equal to .25 |
With C&R, what value takes precedence over all other values? | Coefficient of Variation (V) |
What are the two measurements of unexplained variation? | Syx and V |
What value is derived from the F table? | Critical F (F*) |
What is the proportion of explained variation to unexplained? | F value |
What is needed to obtain the critical F value from the F table? | the degrees of freedom for SSR and SSE |
If the F value is greater than the Critical F Value, the WLF equation ________ the test. | passes |
What determines if the sample’s proportion of explained to unexplained variation is significant enough so that one can make accurate predictions about the population man-hours? | F Test |
What are the two values that aid in C&R analysis, but are not part of the seven steps? | Significance F and Coefficient of Correlation (R) |
What measures the strength and direction of the relationship between X and Y? | Coefficient of Correlation (R) |
What is the go/no-go for Significance F? | Must be less than .05 |
What is the go/no-go for R? | must be greater than or equal to 0.7071 |
What is the first thing done after a good equation is created? | Extrapolate |
Extrapolation is only performed on the _________ ________ _________ | Chosen WLF Equation |
What is the maximum acceptable amount of extrapolation? | 50% |
What does extrapolation do? | Extend the applicability of the standard |
What equation form uses two or more independent variables? | Multivariate Equation |
What equation represents a curvilinear relationship? | Parabolic Equation |
How do you determine the best equation for a manpower standard after it passes the six tests? | Use the equation with the highest V value |
How many different tests must an equation pass to be eligible for a manpower standard? | 6 |
What are the six tests a manpower equation has to pass to be eligible for a standard? | (1)b must be positive, (2)R2 must be > or equal to 0.5, (3)R must be > than or equal to 0.7071, (4)Sig F must be < than 0.05, (5)V must be > than or equal to 0.25, and (6)equation must pass the F test |
What would you do with a parabolic equation that has a concave curve? | Stop because you can’t use a concave curve in a manpower standard |
What is a means of assigning authorized spaces to a work center? | A Manpower Standard |
What is a driver of workload? | A WLF |
What are man-hours? | The time spend performing work |
What predicts man-hours? | WLF |
If a function is particular to one location, what is appropriate? | A Single Location Standard |
How do single location standards further break down direct and indirect man-hours? | Variable and fixed man-hours |
What type of man-hours are directly related to WLFs? | Variable |
What type of man-hours are unrelated to WLFs? | Fixed |
What are man-hours related to tasks that are common to almost every work center? | Standard Indirect Allowed Man-hours (SIAMs) |
What is the equation for a single location standard? | Y=a + b1X1 + b2X2……bnXn + SIAM |
In a single location standard equation, what does Y represent? | the sum of all applicable man hours |
In a single location standard equation, what does a represent? | the sum of fixed measured man-hours |
In a single location standard equation, what does b represent? | the direct man-hours needed to produce one unit of work |
What is SIAM in a single location standard equation? | the sum of all the indirect work man-hours |
What is the value of the workload factor in a single location standard equation? | X |
When determining b in a single location equation, the appropriate ratio has _________ __________in the numerator and _______ ________ in the denominator. | Variable Man-hours and WLF count |
True or False: Skill and grade determination must not be affected by external constraints, but can be affected by funding limitations. | False (not affected by either) |
When are grades and skills initially analyzed? | Study Planning Phase |
When are grades and skills incorporated into manpower tables? | Data Analysis and Computation |
What are the two methods for determining skills and grades? | C&R and non-C&R |
True or False: C&R and non-C&R are the only two methods for determining grades and skills | False, there are several different methods |
If you decide to use another method besides C&R or non-C&R, what must you do? | Document the method and its data source in the final report |
How many grades per skill policy are grade and skill analysis based on? | 2 |
What are the two 9 level grades on a manpower table? | CMSgt and SMSgt |
What are the percentages of the 9 level grades on a manpower table? | CMSgt is 33% and SMSgt is 67% |
What are the two 7 level grades on a manpower table? | MSgt and TSgt |
On a manpower table, the percentage ratio for 7 levels should be? | MSgt 40% and TSgt 60% |
True or False: 5 level percentage ratio is equally divided between SSgt’s and SrA’s | True (50/50) |
What is the easiest method used to build a manpower table? | non-C&R |
Who decides what percentage of work is done by what skill level at an input location? | base-level functional OPR (supervisor, NCOIC) |
How are manpower requirements calculated for a manpower table using the non-C&R method? | by dividing the upper and lower extrapolated limits by the MAF * OLF |
What happens when a grade inversion occurs? | the number for a particular grade and skill level decrease when compared to the previous column in the table |
What form is used in creating a manpower table? | AF Form 1113 |
Using the C&R method of grade and skill determination, who determines the grade and skill percentages? | AF Functional OPR |
What grades and skill levels are listed on a MANTAB? | Required grades and skill levels |
True or False: A civilian grade will be used on a MANTAB from a workcenter with six civilians and a military manager. | True |
What concept is used in determining what skill levels are needed? | the concept that workers should spend majority of their time performing at their highest skill level |
How many steps are used in the C&R method of developing a MANTAB? | 12 |
What AFI is used to verify OPR justification when a colonel requirement or position is identified? | AFI 38-201 |
What must be done if conditions fall outside of those listed in the Statement of Conditions? | A variance |
What are the three types of variances? | Mission, Environmental and Technological |
What is a positive variance? | A variance that adds man-hours to a location |
What is a negative variance? | A variance that subtracts man-hours to a location |
When do MAJCOMs receive their first opportunity to identify variances? | During coordination of the POD or workshop |
Other than during POD coordination or the workshop, when can MAJCOMs identify variances? | During the five day review or after the standard is published |
When a variance is identified, what must be completed? | An AF Form 1068 |
Where do installation manpower offices send the AF Form 1068? | MAJCOM |
Potential variances must do what to be considered for development? | exceed 25 man-hours |
Where does MAJCOM send the AF Form 1068? | to the AF Functional OPR |
True or False: MAJCOM must send all variances to the AF Functional OPR | False, only supported variances are sent up the chain |
What are the two things the AF Functional OPR decides upon receiving a potential variance from a MAJCOM? | Whether the variance is or is not covered in an AF core standard and whether it’s applicable to another MAJCOM |
If a variance is only applicable to the requesting MAJCOM, what does the AF Functional OPR do? | comment on its merit and tell the MAJCOM whether or not to proceed with variance development |
If a variance is applicable to more than one MAJCOM, what does the AF Functional OPR do? | send the variance to AFMA for development |
Who does AFMA send variances to for approval? | Air Staff OPR |
When is an AF Form 1068 for a positive variance submitted for review? | when man-hours are quantified |
What is the formula for computing negative variance man-hours? | y=bX |
If a function is not performing an entire process, what should be done? | A Negative Variance |
Preferrably, when is the y=bX method used? | when the man-hours originally credited to the work center by the core standard are unknown |
What type of variance would you create for mobility, deployment and war plan exercises? | Wartime Variance |
What are the three categories of credit for wartime variances? | Will give, can give and will not |
What are two types of standards application processes? | Initial application and reapplication |
How much time is given to implement new AF Manpower Standards? | within 90 calendar days of receipt |
What is the standard effective date after coding manpower requirements? | 3 Fiscal Quarters (current plus two) |
When are manpower requirement decreases effective? | immediately |
Unless directed by HQ USAF, what must MAJCOMS do with authorizations saved from implementation of AFMSs? | retain and reinvest |
Where do you forward all requests for additional manpower resources? | HQ USAF/A1M |
When are AFMSs reapplied? | when mission changes, significant base population changes, or when directed by MAJCOM CCs |
How many authorizations must be affected to warrant a AFMS reapplication for base population? | 100 |
How do MAJCOM’s fund increased requirements? | Funding/Authorizations is taking from other bases within the MAJCOM |
True/False: Each manpower standard has unique application instructions. | True |
True/False: Normal rounding rules apply to every AFMS application. | False |
True/False: All variances within a standard will apply at every location. | False |
What other name is the study report known by? | Final report |
What is a detailed document that is produced by the lead team at the end of the study to document various aspects of the study effort? | Study Report |
What is the foundation for publication of an AFMS? | Study Report |
What are the three major parts of a study report? | Introduction, Manpower Standard, and Data Analysis and Computations Summary |
True or False: A quality assurance review is required for every study report. | False (only recommended) |
What five items are included on the cover page of a study report? | typ of study report, functional area covered w/ FAC, whether it is a peacetime, wartime or combination study, who conducted the study and date of study |
What items are included in the table of contents of a study report? | introduction, manpower standard, data analysis and computation and attachments |
Which part of a study report contains the Developmental Locations, Development Methods and Study Period? | Part One--Introduction |
Which part of a study report contains the Data Collection and Data Analysis information? | Part Three—Data Analysis and Computation Summary |
Which part of study report contains the Manpower Standard? | Part Two—Manpower Standard |
Which part of a study report contains the POD, SOC and WLF? | Part Two—Manpower Standard |
Where would you find variance impacts in a study report? | Part Two—Manpower Standard, Attachment 3 |
Where would you find process analysis Summary Data in a study report? | Part Two—Manpower Standard, Attachment 4 |
What is the beginning and ending date of each phase of study? | Study Period |
What information about the study participants must be included in a study report? | Office Symbol, DSN number and specific functional area |
What must be given for all reference documents used in a study report? | the dates of the documents |
Where do you cite the work measurement method used for a study report? | In the development method stated in part one---introduction |
Where in a study report would you identify any work centers that were not measured at a given location? | in development locations stated in part one---introduction |
What presents a standard for final coordination, validation, approval, application, and publication as a departmental or command document? | Formatting |
Where should the FAC appear on a manpower standard? | at the top right corner |
What always precedes the FAC on a manpower standard? | the letters AFMS |
Where is the title located on a manpower standard? | in the middle of the page, directly below the heading |
How do you designate a AFMS that is specifically for a certain MAJCOM or base? | the appropriate MAJCOM designation or base name is added after the title |
What should you try to do when preparing a mission statement on a AFMS? | limit the statement to five typed lines |
What is a series of broad statements that define the mission support capabilities of each subordinate element? | A Responsibility Statement |
What should a responsibility statement in an AFMS encompass? | the major processes or work activities performed in support of the flight |
When is a responsibility statement not required? | when a flight has no subordinate elements |
Where would you identify the environment that a function operates in an AFMS? | In the applicability section of the AFMS |
What must be specifically addressed in the applicability section of an AFMS? | the applicability statement, specific applicability to ANG and AFR units, |