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3S3X1 Block 3
Manpower Block III study notes
Question  Answer 

What characteristic is symbolized by “X”?  Independent Variable 
What characteristic is symbolized by “Y”?  Dependent Variable 
In Manpower, what is the most common independent variable?  Workload Factor (WLF) 
Why is WLF manipulated?  To see how it affects manhours 
True or False: The most common dependent variable used in Manpower is the WLF  FalseManhours 
Independent variables are plotted on what?  Xaxis 
Dependent variables are plotted on what?  Yaxis 
What is the intersection of the X and Y value?  A Data Point 
On a scatter diagram, the horizontal line is the ______ and the vertical line is the _________.  Xaxis and Yaxis 
What symbol is used to show data series that appear more than once?  A circle 
Name the 4 types of relationships between variables?  Positive/Direct, Negative/Inverse, Curvilinear and None 
What are the two types of curvilinear relationships?  Concave and Convex 
If X increases and Y increases, what type of relationship is this?  Positive/Direct 
If X decreases and Y increases, what type of relationship is this?  Negative/Inverse 
When do data points on a scatter diagram have no relationship?  When X and Y occur without influencing each other 
What are the different types of strengths between variables?  Strong, Weak and Unrelated 
How do you determine if a variable relationship is strong?  Data points will be strongly clustered about the mean 
What types of variable relationships can be strong?  Any type (positive, negative or curvilinear) 
What is the strength of a scatter diagram that is loosely scattered about the mean?  Weak 
If a change in X may produce a change in Y, the relationship is ______  Weak 
Why will a scatter plot show no correlation even though the variables are related?  The data values are too close together 
What are equations created to predict manhours from workload factors?  Models 
What are the two main selection criteria for an equation?  It must be realistic and economical 
What makes an equation realistic?  It must have a positive slope with no net loss of manhours for an increase in workload 
What is used to develop manpower standards?  C&R 
Where is the C&R equation published?  In a manpower standard 
What is a statistical process used to measure the strength and type of relationship between variables?  C&R 
What is manipulated to see “what happens”?  Independent Variable 
Why will C&R no prove that a cause and effect relationship exists between WLF and manhours?  because it is inferential 
Correlation and Regression are two separate and distinct processes, but are ______  interrelated 
What does Correlation measure?  the strength and direction of the relationship between variables 
What type of equation is used for manpower standards?  Linear Bivariate 
What is the most direct relationship between two variables?  Linear equation 
What is the linear bivariate equation?  Yc=a + bX 
What is the yintercept in a linear bivariate equation?  a 
What is the slope in a linear bivariate equation?  b 
What does “Y” represent?  The number of manhours predicted by C&R given a WLF and number of manhours currently used at the sample bases 
What are the two coefficients in a linear equation?  a and b 
In developing manpower standards, a regression equation is created for what?  Each WLF under study 
What is Step 1 of C&R?  Compute Summary Statistics 
What is Step 2 of C&R?  Estimate Summary Coefficients 
True or False: The value of the coefficient “b” must always be positive  True 
True or False: The value of the intercept must always be positive  False 
What is Step 3 of C&R?  Compute the Total Sum of Squares (TSS) 
What is the formula for TSS?  TSS=SSE + SSR 
What measures the total variation in sample data?  TSS 
Which type of variation is unacceptable?  SSE 
What type of variation is unexplained by the regression equation?  SSE 
What type of variation is explained by the regression equation?  SSR 
Why is SSR explained variation?  Because the variation among sample data occurs simply because the data was collected at different locations 
What is the goal of SSR?  For the value to be the greater proportion of the TSS value 
Is there a go/nogo associated with Step 3 (TSS) of C&R?  No 
What is the go/nogo associated with Step 2 (summary coefficients) of C&R?  the “b” value must be positive 
What is the symbol for the standard error of the estimate?  Syx 
What measures how the data points are scattered about the regression line?  Syx (standard error of the estimate) 
Standard error is a measure of ________ __________  unexplained variation 
What is the similarity between standard deviation and standard error?  They are both absolute measures of dispersion 
Coefficient of Determination is also known as ______  R2 
What is a measure of explained variation?  R2 
What must the value of R2 be to be included in a manpower standard?  Greater than or equal to 0.5 
What allows comparison of the relative amounts of dispersion between sets of data?  Coefficient of Variation 
What is go/nogo for Coefficient of Variation?  It must be less than or equal to .25 
With C&R, what value takes precedence over all other values?  Coefficient of Variation (V) 
What are the two measurements of unexplained variation?  Syx and V 
What value is derived from the F table?  Critical F (F*) 
What is the proportion of explained variation to unexplained?  F value 
What is needed to obtain the critical F value from the F table?  the degrees of freedom for SSR and SSE 
If the F value is greater than the Critical F Value, the WLF equation ________ the test.  passes 
What determines if the sample’s proportion of explained to unexplained variation is significant enough so that one can make accurate predictions about the population manhours?  F Test 
What are the two values that aid in C&R analysis, but are not part of the seven steps?  Significance F and Coefficient of Correlation (R) 
What measures the strength and direction of the relationship between X and Y?  Coefficient of Correlation (R) 
What is the go/nogo for Significance F?  Must be less than .05 
What is the go/nogo for R?  must be greater than or equal to 0.7071 
What is the first thing done after a good equation is created?  Extrapolate 
Extrapolation is only performed on the _________ ________ _________  Chosen WLF Equation 
What is the maximum acceptable amount of extrapolation?  50% 
What does extrapolation do?  Extend the applicability of the standard 
What equation form uses two or more independent variables?  Multivariate Equation 
What equation represents a curvilinear relationship?  Parabolic Equation 
How do you determine the best equation for a manpower standard after it passes the six tests?  Use the equation with the highest V value 
How many different tests must an equation pass to be eligible for a manpower standard?  6 
What are the six tests a manpower equation has to pass to be eligible for a standard?  (1)b must be positive, (2)R2 must be > or equal to 0.5, (3)R must be > than or equal to 0.7071, (4)Sig F must be < than 0.05, (5)V must be > than or equal to 0.25, and (6)equation must pass the F test 
What would you do with a parabolic equation that has a concave curve?  Stop because you can’t use a concave curve in a manpower standard 
What is a means of assigning authorized spaces to a work center?  A Manpower Standard 
What is a driver of workload?  A WLF 
What are manhours?  The time spend performing work 
What predicts manhours?  WLF 
If a function is particular to one location, what is appropriate?  A Single Location Standard 
How do single location standards further break down direct and indirect manhours?  Variable and fixed manhours 
What type of manhours are directly related to WLFs?  Variable 
What type of manhours are unrelated to WLFs?  Fixed 
What are manhours related to tasks that are common to almost every work center?  Standard Indirect Allowed Manhours (SIAMs) 
What is the equation for a single location standard?  Y=a + b1X1 + b2X2……bnXn + SIAM 
In a single location standard equation, what does Y represent?  the sum of all applicable man hours 
In a single location standard equation, what does a represent?  the sum of fixed measured manhours 
In a single location standard equation, what does b represent?  the direct manhours needed to produce one unit of work 
What is SIAM in a single location standard equation?  the sum of all the indirect work manhours 
What is the value of the workload factor in a single location standard equation?  X 
When determining b in a single location equation, the appropriate ratio has _________ __________in the numerator and _______ ________ in the denominator.  Variable Manhours and WLF count 
True or False: Skill and grade determination must not be affected by external constraints, but can be affected by funding limitations.  False (not affected by either) 
When are grades and skills initially analyzed?  Study Planning Phase 
When are grades and skills incorporated into manpower tables?  Data Analysis and Computation 
What are the two methods for determining skills and grades?  C&R and nonC&R 
True or False: C&R and nonC&R are the only two methods for determining grades and skills  False, there are several different methods 
If you decide to use another method besides C&R or nonC&R, what must you do?  Document the method and its data source in the final report 
How many grades per skill policy are grade and skill analysis based on?  2 
What are the two 9 level grades on a manpower table?  CMSgt and SMSgt 
What are the percentages of the 9 level grades on a manpower table?  CMSgt is 33% and SMSgt is 67% 
What are the two 7 level grades on a manpower table?  MSgt and TSgt 
On a manpower table, the percentage ratio for 7 levels should be?  MSgt 40% and TSgt 60% 
True or False: 5 level percentage ratio is equally divided between SSgt’s and SrA’s  True (50/50) 
What is the easiest method used to build a manpower table?  nonC&R 
Who decides what percentage of work is done by what skill level at an input location?  baselevel functional OPR (supervisor, NCOIC) 
How are manpower requirements calculated for a manpower table using the nonC&R method?  by dividing the upper and lower extrapolated limits by the MAF * OLF 
What happens when a grade inversion occurs?  the number for a particular grade and skill level decrease when compared to the previous column in the table 
What form is used in creating a manpower table?  AF Form 1113 
Using the C&R method of grade and skill determination, who determines the grade and skill percentages?  AF Functional OPR 
What grades and skill levels are listed on a MANTAB?  Required grades and skill levels 
True or False: A civilian grade will be used on a MANTAB from a workcenter with six civilians and a military manager.  True 
What concept is used in determining what skill levels are needed?  the concept that workers should spend majority of their time performing at their highest skill level 
How many steps are used in the C&R method of developing a MANTAB?  12 
What AFI is used to verify OPR justification when a colonel requirement or position is identified?  AFI 38201 
What must be done if conditions fall outside of those listed in the Statement of Conditions?  A variance 
What are the three types of variances?  Mission, Environmental and Technological 
What is a positive variance?  A variance that adds manhours to a location 
What is a negative variance?  A variance that subtracts manhours to a location 
When do MAJCOMs receive their first opportunity to identify variances?  During coordination of the POD or workshop 
Other than during POD coordination or the workshop, when can MAJCOMs identify variances?  During the five day review or after the standard is published 
When a variance is identified, what must be completed?  An AF Form 1068 
Where do installation manpower offices send the AF Form 1068?  MAJCOM 
Potential variances must do what to be considered for development?  exceed 25 manhours 
Where does MAJCOM send the AF Form 1068?  to the AF Functional OPR 
True or False: MAJCOM must send all variances to the AF Functional OPR  False, only supported variances are sent up the chain 
What are the two things the AF Functional OPR decides upon receiving a potential variance from a MAJCOM?  Whether the variance is or is not covered in an AF core standard and whether it’s applicable to another MAJCOM 
If a variance is only applicable to the requesting MAJCOM, what does the AF Functional OPR do?  comment on its merit and tell the MAJCOM whether or not to proceed with variance development 
If a variance is applicable to more than one MAJCOM, what does the AF Functional OPR do?  send the variance to AFMA for development 
Who does AFMA send variances to for approval?  Air Staff OPR 
When is an AF Form 1068 for a positive variance submitted for review?  when manhours are quantified 
What is the formula for computing negative variance manhours?  y=bX 
If a function is not performing an entire process, what should be done?  A Negative Variance 
Preferrably, when is the y=bX method used?  when the manhours originally credited to the work center by the core standard are unknown 
What type of variance would you create for mobility, deployment and war plan exercises?  Wartime Variance 
What are the three categories of credit for wartime variances?  Will give, can give and will not 
What are two types of standards application processes?  Initial application and reapplication 
How much time is given to implement new AF Manpower Standards?  within 90 calendar days of receipt 
What is the standard effective date after coding manpower requirements?  3 Fiscal Quarters (current plus two) 
When are manpower requirement decreases effective?  immediately 
Unless directed by HQ USAF, what must MAJCOMS do with authorizations saved from implementation of AFMSs?  retain and reinvest 
Where do you forward all requests for additional manpower resources?  HQ USAF/A1M 
When are AFMSs reapplied?  when mission changes, significant base population changes, or when directed by MAJCOM CCs 
How many authorizations must be affected to warrant a AFMS reapplication for base population?  100 
How do MAJCOM’s fund increased requirements?  Funding/Authorizations is taking from other bases within the MAJCOM 
True/False: Each manpower standard has unique application instructions.  True 
True/False: Normal rounding rules apply to every AFMS application.  False 
True/False: All variances within a standard will apply at every location.  False 
What other name is the study report known by?  Final report 
What is a detailed document that is produced by the lead team at the end of the study to document various aspects of the study effort?  Study Report 
What is the foundation for publication of an AFMS?  Study Report 
What are the three major parts of a study report?  Introduction, Manpower Standard, and Data Analysis and Computations Summary 
True or False: A quality assurance review is required for every study report.  False (only recommended) 
What five items are included on the cover page of a study report?  typ of study report, functional area covered w/ FAC, whether it is a peacetime, wartime or combination study, who conducted the study and date of study 
What items are included in the table of contents of a study report?  introduction, manpower standard, data analysis and computation and attachments 
Which part of a study report contains the Developmental Locations, Development Methods and Study Period?  Part OneIntroduction 
Which part of a study report contains the Data Collection and Data Analysis information?  Part Three—Data Analysis and Computation Summary 
Which part of study report contains the Manpower Standard?  Part Two—Manpower Standard 
Which part of a study report contains the POD, SOC and WLF?  Part Two—Manpower Standard 
Where would you find variance impacts in a study report?  Part Two—Manpower Standard, Attachment 3 
Where would you find process analysis Summary Data in a study report?  Part Two—Manpower Standard, Attachment 4 
What is the beginning and ending date of each phase of study?  Study Period 
What information about the study participants must be included in a study report?  Office Symbol, DSN number and specific functional area 
What must be given for all reference documents used in a study report?  the dates of the documents 
Where do you cite the work measurement method used for a study report?  In the development method stated in part oneintroduction 
Where in a study report would you identify any work centers that were not measured at a given location?  in development locations stated in part oneintroduction 
What presents a standard for final coordination, validation, approval, application, and publication as a departmental or command document?  Formatting 
Where should the FAC appear on a manpower standard?  at the top right corner 
What always precedes the FAC on a manpower standard?  the letters AFMS 
Where is the title located on a manpower standard?  in the middle of the page, directly below the heading 
How do you designate a AFMS that is specifically for a certain MAJCOM or base?  the appropriate MAJCOM designation or base name is added after the title 
What should you try to do when preparing a mission statement on a AFMS?  limit the statement to five typed lines 
What is a series of broad statements that define the mission support capabilities of each subordinate element?  A Responsibility Statement 
What should a responsibility statement in an AFMS encompass?  the major processes or work activities performed in support of the flight 
When is a responsibility statement not required?  when a flight has no subordinate elements 
Where would you identify the environment that a function operates in an AFMS?  In the applicability section of the AFMS 
What must be specifically addressed in the applicability section of an AFMS?  the applicability statement, specific applicability to ANG and AFR units, 
Created by:
russum