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Skeletal Structures

Skeletal bones

Functions of the Skeletal System Support- Gives Shape Protection- cranium, vertebral column and ribcage
Hematopoiesis Formation of blood cells
Calcification Mineralzation of uncalcified matrix
Intramembranous Ossification Replacement of Dense Fibrous connective tissue. 1. Flat Bones of Roof of Skull 2. The Mandible 3. The Medial 1/2 of the Clavicle
Endochondral Ossification Replacement of Hyaline Cartilages. 1. Rest of bones in skull 2. The lateral 1/2 of the Clavicle 3. The rest of the bones except two sesamoid bones included in the names 206 body bones
Perichondrium Covers shaft of the cartilage template bone.
Epiphyseal Plate Controls Longitude Growth contains: Growth Zone and Chondroblasts-constantly undergo mitosis.
Diaphyseal Side Transformation Zone- chondroclasts and osteoblasts found here
Long Bones femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, radius, ulna, plalanges- composed mostly of compact bone.
Short Bones Tarsals and carpals
Irregular Bones Vertebrae
Seasamoid Bones Patellas and Pisiforms
Hypocalcemia Effects Spontaneous Depolarization Weekness of Cardiac Muscles - inadequare supply of blood to the general circulation. Interfernce with blood coagulation.
Hyperparathryoidism The over productions of PTH
Hypercalcemia Effects Asthenia-Weakness of Skeletal Muscles Strong irregular contractions of the heart Clotting
The following are bone conditions Blank
Osteitis deformans Paget's Disease-bone resorpation and formation increases ( simanteous thickening and softening of bones
Osteoporosis Reduction in the quantity of bone, atrophy of skeletal tissue. 80% cases in woman.
Osteopenia any condition involving reduced bone mass
Osteomalacia Sofening of the bones due to impaired mineralzation with excess accumalation of matrix- Rickets
Osteomyelitis Inflamation of the bone
Periostium Layers- OUTER Outer Dense fibrous collagenous containing nerves.
Periostium Layers- Inner Elastic C.T. membrane called the osteogenic layer.
Sharpey's fibers Tufts of collangenous fibers that physically attach the periosteum to the bone.
Types of Fractures-Open Broken end of bone protrudes through skin
Types of Fractures-Closed Non-protruding ends
Types of Fractures-Open reduction Surgical setting
Types of Fractures-Closed reduction Non-surgical setting
Rotator Cuff Tendons 1. Supraspinatus 2. InfraSpinatus 3. Teres Minor 4. Subscapularis
Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa- Subcutaneous prepatellar bursa- inflammation of it causes "housemaid's knee.
Osteoathritis of Knee Knee replacement total is call knee arthoplasty
Knee Arthroscopy Scope knee-sham surgery to make patient think they are better.
Complete Fracture Goes Completely thru bone structure
Incomplete fracture Fracture doesnt go completely through bone, greenstick and hairline
Non-displaced Fracture Anatomical alignment does not remain the same
Comminuted Fracture Bone broken in more then one plase; Depressed fracture
Compression Fracture Crushed completely
Stage of Hematoma Large Blood Clot-forms around broken end of bone
Stage of Callus formation Loosely-wooven cartilaginous tissue which serves to termporarily "bridge " the fracture.
Formation order Fibrocatilaginous callus Bony callus- spongy bone Stage of calcification
Wolff's Law Bones in Humans and Animals will adapt to the pressure put on them
Components of an Osteon Haversian Concentric Lacunae Canaliculi
Interstitial Lamellae Components Interstitial lamellae Lacunae Canaliculi
Spongey Bone Contains Trabeculae- Thin plates of bone Lacunae- embedded in trabculae
Hyoid Bone Only bone in the human body that has no articulations, held by to stylohyoid ligaments
Cuvatures of Spine Congenital Disease Injury Poor Body Posture
Functions of Vertabral Column Support Levers for Muscles Protection of Spinal Cord Withstand forces of compression
Functions of Intervertebral Discs Cushions for the vertebrae Shock apsorbers
Most Common injuries to Vertebrae Crush Hyperexstension- severs spinal cord
Dispathology Herniated disc can lead to nerve root irritation
Parts of Interverterbral Discs Outer Layer- Dense carlage- Annulus Fibrosus Inner- soft resilient later- Nucleus Pulposus
Created by: alexanderrr