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Science and technology are… related to one another, but not the same thing.
In a scientific experiment, a control is… a test that duplicates an experimental test except for one variable and a way to study the effects of just one experimental variable.
If experimental findings are not reproducible,… the results are not considered valid.
If a freely falling object were somehow equipped with a speedometer, its speed reading would increase each second by about… 10 m/s
The scientific method is a method for… gaining new knowledge
The synthesis of a large collection of info that contains well-tested and verified hypotheses about certain aspects of the world is known as a scientific… theory
A scientific hypothesis may turn out to be right or it may turn out to be wrong. If it is a valid hypothesis, there must be a test for proving it… wrong
A kilogram is a measure of an object’s… mass
Most natural phenomena we wonder about… involve several scientific disciplines
In science, an educated guess is a… hypothesis
Where as Aristotle relied on login in explaining nature, Galileo relied on… experiment
What is the acceleration of a car that maintains a constant velocity of 100 km/hr for 10 s? 0 m/s2
The statement, “there are regions beneath Earth’s crust that will always be beyond the reach of scientific investigation,” is a… speculation
Using science to analyze nature… adds depth to our understanding and therefore adds to our appreciation of nature.
A 1-kg mass at Earth’s surface weighs about… 10 N
Science, art, and religion do not contradict one another because… all three have different domains
Which force binds atoms together to form molecules? Electrical
Which statement is correct? a. Current flows through a circuit b. Voltage flows through a circuit c. Resistance is established across a circuit d. Current causes voltage a. Current flows through a circuit
The force on an electron moving in a magnetic field will be the largest when its direction is.. Perpendicular to the magnetic field direction
Thrust a magnet into a coil of wire and the coil a. Becomes an electromagnet b. Has a current in it
Voltage can be induced in a wire by… a. Changing the current in a nearby wire b. Moving a magnet near the wire c. Moving the wire near a magnet
If you push an object twice as far while applying the same force, you do… Twice as much work
If you exert 1 N for a distance of 1 m in 1 s, you will deliver a power of… 1 W
An object is raised above the ground gaining a certain amount of potential energy. If the same object is raised twice as high, it gains… Twice as much potential energy.
A flower pot of mass m falls from rest to the ground below, a distance h. Which statement is correct? The KE of the pot when it hits the ground is proportional to h.
Thermal energy is a measure of vibrational and… a. Translational kinetic energy b. Rotational kinetic energy
The direction of a gravitational field is… In the same direction of gravitational attraction
When the distance between two stars decreases by half, the force between them… Increases to four times as much
Consider a huge rotating cloud of particles in space that gravitate together to form an increasingly dense ball. As the cloud shrinks in size, it rotates… Faster
An ampere is a unit of electrical… Current
A main difference between gravitational and electrical forces is that electrical forces… Repel or attract
To say that electric charge is conserved means that no case has ever been found where… Net charge has been created or destroyed
As more lamps are put into a series circuit, the overall current in the power source… Decreases
Which has greater kinetic energy, a car traveling at 30 km/h or a car of half that mass traveling at 60 km/h? The 60-km/h car
According to Newton, the greater the masses of interacting objects, the Greater the gravitational force between them
The source of all magnetism is Moving electric charge
Charge carriers in a metal are electrons rather than protons because electrons are Loosely bound
Moving electric charges will interact with a. An electric field b. A magnetic field
Magnetic domains normally occur in Iron
When the distance between two charges is halved, the electrical force between the charges Quadruples
An earth satellite is simply a projectile freely falling around the earth true or false True
If you do work on an object in half the time, your power output is Twice the usual power output
The headlights, radio, and defroster fan in an automobile are connected in Parallel
An object that has kinetic energy must be Moving
Electrons are made to flow in a wire when there is A potential difference across its ends
A proton and an electron are placed in an electric field. Which undergoes the greater acceleration? The electron
The solar system consists of objects Gravitationally bound to the sun
The electrical forces between charges depends on the a. Separation distance between electric charges b. Magnitude of electric charges
The vibrations of a transverse wave move in a direction… At right angles to the direction of wave travel
The main difference between a radio wave and a light wave is its
Relative to radio waves, the velocity of visible light waves in a vacuum is The same Radio waves and light are both electromagnetic waves and have identical speed, 3 x 108 meters/second.
Which of these electromagnetic waves has the shortest wavelength? a. Lightwaves b. Infrared waves c. X rays d. Radio waves e. u/v waves c. X rays
The Richter scale measures an earthquake’s Magnitude
The richter scale measures the Amount that the ground shakes during an earthquake
The source of all wave motion is a Vibrating object
Which of the following is not a transverse wave? a. Radio b. Sound c. Light b. Sound
The vibrations of a longitudinal wave move in a direction Along the direction of wave travel
Wave interference occurs for a. Water waves b. Sound waves c. Light waves
Sound travels faster in Steel
Sound waves cannot travel in A vacuum
Electromagnetic waves consist of Vibrating electric and magnetic fields
Relative to U/V waves, the wavelength of infrared waves is Longer
The source of all electromagnetic waves is Vibrating charges
Refraction of sound can occur in.. a. Water b. Air
The Mercalli scale measures the… Damage done by an earthquake
The movement of water in a wave travels… In a circular path at and just below the water surface
In a swell, wavelength is constant. As a swell nears the shore and touches bottom, the wavelength Shortens, wave speed slows, and wave height increases
For light, a red shift indicated the light source moves Away from you
A sound source of high frequency emits high Pitch
Compressions and rarefactions are characteristic of Longitudinal waves
Most of the electromagnetic spectrum consists of visible light true or false false
In designing a music hall, an acoustical engineer deals mainly with Wave interference
Light behaves primarily as a particle when it Interacts with matter
wave is a Primary wave
A sound wave is a Longitudinal wave
The photoelectric effect best demonstrates the Particle nature of light
Water interference occurs for a. Water waves b. Sound waves c. Light waves
Tsunami are caused usually by Earthquakes in subduction zone
Earthquake p-waves Are longitudinal vibrations similar to sound waves
The atomic number of an element is the same as the number of its Protons
Energy released by the Sun results from the process wherein atomic nuclei Combine
Why are the inner planets rocky? They are formed from materials with high melting points
The planet that is most tipped to its orbital plane is Uranus
A black hole is The remains of a giant collapsed star
The temperature of a star is evidenced by its Color
A pulsar is likely a Spinning neutron star
Evidence for the Big Bang is the a. Long wavelength radiation that permeates the universe b. Slowing down of galaxies as they recede
The difference between apparent brightness and luminosity is that Luminosity is a good indicator of the energy output of a star
A blue star is _______ than a red star. Hotter
Red giants are stars that Are large but have low surface temperatures
Radiometric dating is based on Proportions of radioactive isotopes and their decay products
To date the age of old rocks, which parent isotopes are most useful? a. Uranium-235 and uranium-238 b. Lead-207 and lead-206 c. Potassium-40 to argon-40 a. Uranium-235 and uranium-238
The atomic mass number of an element is the same as the number of its Nucleons
Different isotopes of an element have different numbers of Neutrons
Uranium-235, uranium-238, and uranium-239 are different Isotopes
Between nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, radioactive by-products are more characteristic of nuclear Fission
Which of the following isotopes is radioactive? a. Carbon-14 b. Carbon-12 a. Carbon-14
Generally speaking, the larger a nucleus is, the greater its Instability
The predominant gas in the atmosphere of mars is Carbon dioxide
Compared to the sum of the masses of all the individual nucleons in their separate states that make up a nucleus, the mass, of the composite nucleus is Less
The planet with a size most like earths is Venus
The hersprung-russel diagram, an important tool of astronomers, relates stellar temperature to stellar Brightness
Stars on the main sequence of the hertzprung-russell diagram Generate energy by fusing hydrogen to helium
The Oort cloud is like the Kuiper Belt in that it Has the same geometric shape
If you wished to date a rock thought to be many millions of years of old, which of the following would be the least useful? Carbon-14 method
White dwarfs are stars that Are small but have high surface temperatures
An atom with an imbalance of electrons to protons is An ion
The end result of radioactive decay can be a different a. Element b. Atom c. Isotope
Asteroids that are most likely to fall to earth with devastating impact are asteroids of the Inner solar system
Compared to the density of water, the density of Saturn is Less
A nucleon has more potential energy with respect to a nucleus when it is Outside the nucleus
The fact that one side of the moon always faces earth is evidence that while revolving about the earth it Rotates about its axis
In both fission and fusion, mass Is changed to the form of kinetic energy
Thermonuclear fusion occurs mainly in the Cores of stars
The nebular theory is based upon the observation that the solar system Is highly ordered, indicating it formed in a step-wise manner from physical processes.
After our sun burns its supply of hydrogen, it will become a Red giant
Compared to the mass of a uranium nucleus before splitting, the pieces it splits into have Less mass
Electric forces within an atomic nucleus tend to Push it apart
Carbon dating requires that the object being tested contains Organic material
Electric forces within an atomic nucleus tend to Push it apart
The hertsprung-russell diagram, an important tool of astronomers, relates stellar temperature to stellar brightness
How many electrons are in the outermost shell oh phosphorus (P, atomic number 15)? 5
How do DNA and RNA differ? a. RNA uses a different sugar from DNA b. RNA uses the nitrogenous base uracil (U) in place of thymine (T) d. RNA is single-stranded rather than double-stranded
The Mohorovicic discontinuity marks the change in rock density between the Mantle and the crustal surface
Continental crust is very buoyant compared with oceanic crust because continental crust is Predominantly composed of granite rocks, whereas oceanic crust is composed of basaltic rocks.
A mineral that is not a silicate is Calcite
The basic building block of all silicate minerals is the Silicate tetrahedron
Minerals that have strong bonds between flat crystal surfaces tend to Show poor cleavage
Some_____rock is formed from minerals that were once dissolved in water Sedimentary
Erosion is Transportation of rock particles via water wind or ice
Limestone may be made up of Shell fragments from marine animals
Rocks altered by heat and pressure beneath earth’s surface are Metamorphic rocks
If one neutron is added to a helium nucleus, the result is Helium
Helium, He, is a nonmetallic gas and the second element in the period table. Rather than being placed adjacent to hydrogen, H, however, helium is placed on the far right of the table because Helium is most similar to other group 18 elements
How might you distinguish a sodium-vapor street lamp from a mercury-vapor street lamp? Look at the street lamps through a spectroscope and match their spectral patterns to their respective atomic spectra
When a gas is changed to a liquid phase, the gas Releases energy
Generally speaking, where are metals found in the period table? On the left side and through the central portion
Oxygen atoms are used to make water molecules. Does this mean that oxygen, O2, and water, H2O, have similar properties? No, compounds are uniquely different from the elements from which they’re made
If two protons are added to an oxygen nucleus, the reslt is Neon
The lithosphere includes a. Continental and oceanic crust b. The crust and the upper part of the mantle c. Part of the mantle and the crust
The outer electrons of metal atoms differ from the outer electrons of nonmetal atoms in that the outer electrons of metals a. Are loosely held b. Can conduct electricity c. Reflect many frequencies of light
The core of Earth is probably composed of Iron and nickel
The mantle is composed of Iron-rich silicate rocks
In terms of the periodic table, is there an abrupt or gradual change between ionic and covalent bonds? There is a gradual change: the farther apart, the more ionic
Earth’s magnetic field is attributed to the Flow of molten fluid in earth’s outer core
What is the difference between a compound and a mixture? The components of a mixture are not chemically bonded together
The neon atom tends NOT to gain any additional electrons because There is no more room available in its outermost occupied shell
If DNA is described as resembling a ladder in structure, the “sides” of the ladder consist of_____and the “rungs” of the ladder consist of _____. Sugar and phosphate; nitrogenous bases
Is the air in your house a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture? Heterogeneous because of the dust particles it contains
What elements tend to form ionic compounds? Elements found on opposite sides of the periodic table
What type of chemical bond would you expect between two chlorine atoms (Cl, atomic number 17)? Nonpolar covalent
In an electrically neutral atom, the number of protons in the nucleus is balances by an equal number of Orbital electrons
Earth’s layer with the most plastic-like behavior is the Mantle
The upper mantle can be divided into 2 zones, the Asthenosphere in the lower upper mantle and part of the lithosphere in the upper part of the upper mantle
The layered appearance of foliated metamorphic rock is due to the Realignment of minerals so that they are perpendicular to compressive forces
One strand of DNA has the sequence CAGTC. The opposite has the sequence GTCAG
What type of chemical bond would you expect between a calcium atom (Ca, atomic number 20) and a chlorine atom (Cl, atomic number 17)? Ionic
Covalent and ionic bonds differ in that Ionic bonds don’t involve the sharing of electrons
Both nitrogen and phosphorus are able to attract three more electrons to their outer shells because a. These electrons are able to pair with unpaired valence electrons b. The nuclear charge attracts them c. There are 3 more spaces available in their outermost shells
What makes an element distinct? The number of protons
The theory of plate tectonics states that The lithosphere is broken up into several plates that move about as a result of convective motion in the asthenosphere
Convergent boundaries are a. Regions of plate collision b. Areas of plate subduction c. Regions of great mountain building
The principal cause of erosion and transportation of sediment in a desert environment is Water
Land subsidence is generally not reversible because The compacted clay layers cannot be expanded
A moraine is a Glacier deposit
If the composition of the atmosphere changed so that less terrestrial radiation was allowed to escape, earth would experience Higher average temperatures
The atmosphere is divided into several layers. The troposphere is the Lowest layer and the thinnest layer, where earth’s weather occurs
The layers of earth’s atmosphere, from top to bottom, are the Exosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere
Which is a major influence on atmospheric circulation? b. The unequal solar heating of earth c. The distribution of continents and oceans d. The major topographic features on the continents e. The Coriolis effect
When a cold air mass moves into a region occupied by a warm air mass, the contact zone is called A cold front
According to the theory of seafloor spreading, molten rock is rising up along The mid-ocean ridges
Transform faults are areas of crustal Accommodation and plate movement
13. Which of the following is not involved in cave formation in limestone? a. Land subsidence b. Dissolution of carbonate rocks c. Mildly acidic ground water a. Land subsidence
Deltas form as Streams enter a standing body of water
As rock is weathered it breaks down and erodes. Sedimentation begins where erosion stops. Erosion is Transportation of rock particles via water wind or ice
The greenhouse effect gets its name from the florist’s greenhouse, where glass prevents reradiated solar energy from escaping. Glass is transparent to visible waves, and opaque to UV and infrared. Glass acts as a sort of one-way valve allowing Visible light to enter, and preventing longer waves from leaving
A glacier forms when Snow accumulates to form ice and the ice mass begins to flow under its own weight
The typical mountain valley that has been subjected to glaciation is shaped like The letter “U”
A drop in barometric pressure is an indication of An approaching cold front
The greenhouse effect is due to the atmosphere’s effect on earth’s heat balance. Solar radiation consists of waves principally in the UV, visible light, and short-wavelength infrared range
Mountains tend to form in long narrow ranges because Mountains are the result of plate convergence—plates coming together
Most mountains are caused by Compressive forces
Lower temperatures can be expected Behind an advancing cold front
Fault-block mountains are produced by Tensional forces and movement of sections of rock along fault planes
A rock that is readily attacked by chemical weathering is Limestone
Irregularities in earth’s surface influence wind patterns. At night, winds blow from a region b. Above land toward the ocean c. Of high pressure to a region of lower pressure
Alfred Wegener supported his theory of continental drift by Making a connection between the rocks, rock structures, and plant and animal fossils in both Africa and south America
Divergent boundaries are areas of Tensional forces that stretch the crust and generate a spreading center.
Which of the following are not produced by streams? Moraines
The theory of seafloor spreading is supported by Paleomagnetic analysis of the ocean’s floor
The relationship between a leech and the animal it feeds off of is an example of a. Parasitism c. Symbiosis
During ecological succession, a. The activities of earlier waves of colonizers cause nutrients and organic matter to accumulate in a habitat, allowing later colonizers to thrive b. Biodiversity often increases over time
A dense canopy of trees, a little leaf litter, and poor soil characterizes Tropical forests
Almost all of earth’s supply of energy comes from The sun
Which trophic level do plant-eating antelope belong to Primary consumers
Fungi that consume dead organic matter are Decomposers
The total set of biotic and abiotic resources a species uses within a community is its Niche
Which trophic level do meat-eating lions belong to? Secondary consumers
On average, what percent of the energy at one trophic level becomes available at the next trophic level? 10%
Wind is generated in response to a. Temperature difference only b. The unequal heating of eath’s surface only c. Pressure differences only
Carbon moves from the abiotic world to the biotic world when Plants build glucose during photosynthesis
Oceanic phytoplankton are found in the Photic zone
The fact that the flow of energy through an ecosystem resembles a pyramid explains why There is more grass than zebras, and more zebras than lions on the African savanna
When an Egyptian plover clean the teeth of a crocodile, we see an example of Mutualism
All the organisms that live in a given area, plus all the abiotic features of their environment, make up a(n) Ecosystem
Fertile soils are found n Deserts and temperate grasslands
Permanently frozen subsoil characterizes Tundra
The reactants in the overall chemical equation for photosynthesis are Carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight
Biodiversity is believed to be greatest when a habitat experiences Regular disturbances that are not too extreme
The primary driving force of earth’s weather is Solar radiation
A population of beetles in which some individuals are blue and some individuals are green evolves by change because more alleles of one color are transmitted to the next generation than alleles of the other color. This mechanism of evolution is known as Genetic drift
The scientific name of a species a. Is always Latinized c. Consists of two parts, the genus name and the species name
Bacteria can possess any of the following traits except Mitochondria
An example of an autotrophic protist is Kelp
5. _____ anchor plants to the ground and _____ are the site of the bulk of photosynthesis. Roots; leaves
Of the following organisms, which is most closely related to an octopus? Clams
All the following traits are heritable in humans except a. Hair length b. Shape of lips c. Hair color d. Eye color Hair length
Each of the following are adaptations related to acquiring mates except a. The erratic flight of the Painted Lady butterfly b. Deer antlers c. Large size and strength in male elephant seals d. The male peacock’s brilliant feathers The erratic flight of the Painted Lady butterfly
Natural selection may favor traits that help organisms a. Survive b. Acquire mates c. Successfully raise offspring
If the females of a species of songbird prefer to mate with more brightly colored males, and you know this trait is heritable, you would expect a. Sexual selection to occur b. Directional selection towards brighter coloration
Whichregardingbiogeographyisfalse?Islands tendtobeoccupiedbymanylandanimals,butfewornoflyingonesNewworldtropicalforestsandoldworldforestsareoccupiedbydifferentsetsoflivingorganismsClosely-relatedspeciestendtobefoundclosetogetherIslandspeciesareoftenmostcl a. Islands tend to be occupied by many land animals, but few or no flying ones
An example of artificial selection is the Breeding of corn from teosinte
The three domains of life are Bacteria, archaea, and eukarya
If lungfishes and salamanders are more closely related to each other than either is to salmon, then a cladistics classification should classify Lungfishes and salamanders together to the exclusion of salmon
Archaea may be any of the following except Eukaryotes
Animals that have only a single body opening that serves as both mouth and anus include Cnidarians and flatworms
Humans are Heterotrophs
Fungi Include both unicellular and multicellular forms
All the following traits of polar bears help them retain heat in a cold environment except A high surface area to volume ratio
A swim bladder is found in Ray-finned fishes
21. Under a cladistics classification system, organisms are grouped together based on their Evolutionary history
Which of the following statements about peppered moths is false?
______are endotherms, and _____are extotherms Birds; lizards
If we compare closely related rabbit species in tropical and arctic environments, we would expect the tropical species to be _____ in size and to have _____legs. Smaller; longer
Which of the following lists of Linnaean levels of classification is correctly ordered from largest to smallest? a. Phylum, class, order, species, genus b. Phylum, order, class, species c.Kingdom, phylum, domain, genus d.Kingdom, class, family, ge Kingdom, class, family, genus
Suggest why people once washed their hands with ashes. The ashes act as a base and reacts with skin oils to produce solutions of soap.
A pH of 7 signifies A neutral solution
The yeast is bread dough feeds on sugar to produce carbon dioxide. Why does the dough rise faster in a warmer area? There is a greater number of effective collisions among reacting molecules
Why is heat often added to chemical reactions performed in the laboratory? a. To allow a greater number of reactants to pass over the activation energy b. To compensate for the natural tendency of energy to disperse c. To increase the rate at which reactant collide
Energy is required to break apart a chemical bond to overcome Electrical forces of attraction
The difference between an exothermic and endothermic reaction is that an exothermic reaction has energy as a product and an endothermic reaction has energy as a reactant
To say a chemical equation is balanced means the number of times each element appears as a reactant is equal to the number of times it appears as a product
During which of the following processes is most ATP generated? a. electron transport b. glycolysis c. Krebs cycle d. fermentation a. electron transport
During glycolysis, sugar is split, and ATP is generated
Nucleic acids store genetic information in living organisms
One difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is that prokaryotic cells have existed on earth far longer than eukaryotic cells
All of the following are eukaryotes except a. baker’s yeast b. hyenas c. orchids d. Escherichia coli, an occupant of the human digestive tract Escherichia coli, an occupant of the human digestive tract
a prokaryotic cell could potentially have a cell wall
The organelles that conduct photosynthesis in plant cells are chloroplasts
What form of transport across the cell membrane does not require energy, but does require a carrier protein? facilitated diffusion
The sodium—potassium pump provides an example of active transport
Water moves in and out of cells through diffusion
In the process of osmosis, water diffuses from an area with a high concentration of water molecules to an area with a low concentration of water molecules b. water moves from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration
During which stage of the cell cycle does a cell divide? mitosis
If an organism’s diploid cells have 40 chromosomes, then its haploid cells have 20 chromosomes
Codons that signal that there are no more amino acids in a protein are stop codons
Allofthefollowingstatementsregardingmeiosisaretrueexceptitoccursinallcellsinthehumanbodyitproduceshaploidcellsitisaformofcelldivisioninwhichoneparentcelldividesultimatelyintofourdaughtercellsitisimportantforallowingchromosomestoexchangecorrespondingpartsw a. it occurs in all cells in the human body
Which about genetic mutations is false? genetic mutations are the ultimate source of all genetic variation, and so they provide the raw materials for evolution and natural selection genetic mutations in egg or sperm cells are particularly significant in genetic mutations are always harmful
A mutation in which one nucleotide is substituted for another is called a point mutation
Which would produce a frameshift mutation? the deletion of a single nucleotide in a gene—coding sequence the insertion of a single nucleotide in a gene—coding sequence the replacement of one nucleotide with another in a gene—coding sequence the deletion of a single nucleotide in a gene—coding sequence b. the insertion of a single nucleotide in a gene—coding sequence
is more likely to develop in older people or people who have been exposed to mutagenes (mutation-causing agents). cancer
The heart is an example of an organ
Neurons that carry messages from the central nervous system to muscle cells or to other responsive organs are called motor neurons
Blood in the left ventricle of the heart will be pumped to arteries going to body tissues
From which blood vessels are materials exchanged between blood and body tissues? capillaries
blood flowing back to the heart travels in veins
Carbon dioxide moves from the bloodstream to the alveoli through the process of diffusion
Which of the following structures are involved in moving air in and out of the lungs? a. muscles between the ribs b. the diaphragm c. the epiglottis d. both a and b . muscles between the ribs b. the diaphragm
A highly acidic mix of hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes is added to food in the stomach
From the glomerulus, ____moves into ____. the filtrate; Bowman’s capsule
Which occurs in the loop of Henle?molecules thebodywantstogetridofaretransportedfromthebloodintothefiltrate molecules the body wants to keep are transported from the filtrate to the blood blood pressure pushes fluid out of the capillaries water reabsor water reabsorption occurs
Urine flows from the bladder out of the body through the urethra
A difference between the innate immune system and the acquired immune system is b. the innate immune system response is immediate, whereas the acquired immune response is delayed, peaking about 3 to 5 days after exposure
39. During the inflammatory response, damaged tissues release histamines b. fluid leaks from capillaries, causing swelling
40. The cells that allow the immune system to respond more quickly to an antigen when it is encountered again later in life are called a. memory cells
Created by: amypatel1228