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A & P - test #2


functions of skin protection, sensory role, gland to synthesize Vit D, excretion (sweat, sebum), regulating body temp
senses of the skin pain, touch, pressure, temp
layers of the skin epidermis, dermis (true skin)
epidermis is made up of outer layer - stratum corneum inner layer - stratum germinativum
stratum corneum multiple layers filled w keratin(H2O proof)
stratum germinativum basal cells, also where mitosis takes place
skin color is from in stratum corneum melanocytes secrete skin pigment melanin that stains cells
shedding cells excoriation or desquamation
what connects layers of skin to muscles subcutaneous layer or hypodermis; loose connective tissue and adipose tissue
where are sensory receptors located in the dermis or true skin
hair is: dermal blood vessel, root, follicle, and shaft - shaft is dead keratinized cells
dermis glands sebaceous and sudoriferous
sebaceous glands produce sebum; keeps skin soft, hair conditioned and skin water proof
sudoriferous glands (sweat) apocrine; under arms, genitals - eccrine; all over esp. forehead upper lip soles of feet
functions of skeletal system framework for body, supports and protection of soft body tissues, lower bones support body wt, red marrow makes blood cells, store calcium and phosphorus
parts of the bone epiphysis, diaphysis, epiphyseal disc, medullary cavity, periosteum, articular cartilage
epiphysis enlarged ends of bone, meets second bone at joint
diaphysis long shaft of bone - primarily compact bone
epiphyseal disc growth plate
medullary cavity hollow center of diaphysis, adults filled with yellow marrow, stores fat
periosteum tough fibrous connective tissue covers outside of diaphysis
articular cartilage on outer surface of epiphysis, decreases friction of joints
as we age... bones lose their mass, become more brittle due to loss of calcium, tendons and ligaments are less flexible=decrease ROM, intervertebral disks shrink
osteoporosis loss of bone mass, become porous & crumble under normal use, loss of estrogen in older women, deficiant calcium and Vit D & low exercise
name the kinds of joints saddle, pivot, ball and socket, hinge
classifications of movement flexion and extension, adduction and abduction, pronation and supination, dorsiflexion and plantar flexion, rotation
muscle closes the jaw masseter
trapezius shrugs shoulders, extends head to look at sky
sternocleidomastoid flexes and rotates head
deltoid abducts arm as in Vertruvian Man
biceps flexes and supinates forearm
brachioradialis flexes forearm
triceps brachii extends forearm
gluteus maximus butt, extends thigh for climbing stairs
sites for IM injections adults: deltoid, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius; in children, vastus lateralis
individual contracting unit of a muscle sarcomere
why must muscles "fire" to keep us upright and provide heat
sliding filament theory sarcomeres shorten because actin and myosin filaments slide past each other
thick muscle fibers myosin
thin muscle fibers actin
3 categories of muscle skeletal/voluntary; smooth/involuntary;(organs) cardiac/involuntary
parts of a neuron dendrites receive info, axon transmits info away from cell body, axon terminals are where chemical neurotransmitters are stored
neurotransmitters acetoylcholine and norepinephrine
neurotransmitters are chemical substances stored in tiny vesicles in the axon terminals
frontal lobe motor area
parietal lobe skin and muscle, taste, speech, reading
occipital lobe vision
temporal lobe hearing, smell, taste memory storage, part of speech area
thalamus relay structure and processing center
hypothalamus integrating system for autonomic nervous system, temp balance, sex, thirst, appetite and emotions
midbrain relay info, associated w visual reflexes
pons relays info, plays role in respiration
medulla oblongata vital function, heart rate, blood flow, blood pressure, respiratory center, coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting
junction between nerve cells synapse or synaptic cleft
CSF cerebrospinal fluid, like plasma but after filtered, found in spinal chord
reflex involuntary response to to a stimuli
BBB blood-brain barrier
meninges the three layers of connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal chord
layers of meninges Pia Mater (soft mother) Arachnoid (spiderweb-like membrane) Dura Mater (hard mother)
Created by: christiethoreson