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A&P Chapter 03

All cells are composed of this which is an aqueous colloidal solution of carbohydrates, protein, lipids, etc. Protoplasm
These compounds are the building blocks of structures within the protoplasm Organelles
Higher cells like those in the human body Eukaryotic
Cells that do not have membrane-bound organelles Prokaryotic
Protoplasm inside the nucleus Nucleoplasm
Protoplasm outside the nucleus Cytoplasm
Cells are measured by this Microns or Micrometers
Cell surrounded by a cell membrane by this Plasma Membrane or the Plasmalemma
Molecules of protein and phospholipids are currently referred to in their arrangement as this Fluid Mosaic Pattern
Compounds with such unpolarized bonds Nonpolar
Area within the cytoplasm that is surrounded by a vacuolar membrane Vacuoles
Most prominent structure in the cell Nucleus
Fluid-containing structure that is separated from the cytoplasm, and is usually refer to as the nuclear envelope Nuclear Membrane
Genetic material of cells located in the nucleus of the cell that determines all the functions and characteristics of the cell Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
A type of nucleic acid Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Genetic material of the cell Chromatin
Spherical particle within the nucleoplasm that does not have a covering membrane around it Nucleolus
Small oblong-shaped structures composed of two membranes Mitochondrion or Mitochondria
Folds of the inner membrane Cristae
Small bodies in the cytoplasm that contain powerful digestive enzymes to enhance the breakdown of cellular components Lysosomes
This process is when lysosomes act as a suicide agent in old and weakened cells Autolysis
Complex system of membranes that form a collection of membrane-bound cavities. Endoplastic Reticulum
Cavities are sac like or channel like Cisternae
All cells would have this Rough or granular ER
This would attached to the granular ER Smooth or Angular ER
Consists of an assembles of flat sac like cisternae that resembles a stack of saucers of pancakes Golgi Apparatus
Tiny granules distributed throughout the cytoplasm and are attached to the rough or granular ER Ribosomes
Copies the code from the DNA molecule to the nucleus Messenger RNA
Assistance of an enzyme Transcription
Go into the cytoplasm and collect the amino acids Transfer RNA
Series of tRNA molecules bring the amino acids to certain sites on the mRNA molelecu Translation
Numerous ribosomes found in the cell indicate the importance and significance Protein Synthesis
Found only in animal cells at right angles to each other near the nuclear membrane Centriols
The pair together is referred to Centrosome
Centrioles move to each side of the dividing cell and position themselves at a location called the opposite pole of the cell Microtubules
Long, hollow cylinders made of protein Tubulin
Cellular organelles located on the cell surface Cilia and Flagella
Cause plants to look green Chloroplasts
Many stacks of membrane Granunm
Made of a stack of individual double membranes Thylakoid
Similar in structure to chloroplasts but contain other pigments Chromoplasts
Cartenoid pigments Xanthophyll
Produce a red orange color Carotene
Another type of plastid Leucoplast
Semirigid covering the cell wall made of complex carbohydrate Cellulose
The genetic material of the cell, either DNA or RNA Nucleic acid
Every DNA molecule has this double helical chain of this Nucleotides
Purine pairs with Thymine
Guanine pairs with Cytosine
Sequence of organic nitrogen base pair codes for a polypetide or a protein gene
Between phases and is the longest and most dynamic part of a cells life Interphase
Dark threads Chromatin
Mitosis is the process of cellular reproduction that occurs in the nucleus and form two identical nuclei Mitosis
Coiled duplicated chromosomes that have shortened and thickened are now visible Prophase
Sister chromatids remain attached to one another Centromere
Pinched-in area of the chromosome where a disk of protein Kinetrochore
Centriole pair begin to move apart to the opposite poles of the cell forming a group of microtubules between them Spindle Fibers
Starburst form is called this Aster
Sister chromatids align themselves at the center of the cell Metaphase
Shortest stage of mitosis and is on of the most dynamic stages to observe Anaphase
Final stage of Mitosis Telophase
Furrowing in of pinching in of the cell membrane Clevage Furrow
Forms at the equator Cell Plate
DNA has already duplicated before the onset of meiosis Prophase I
Spindle microtubules attract to the kinetochore only on the outside of each centromere and the centromeres are are attached to the microtubules from the opposite side Metaphase I
Microtubules of the spindle shorten and pulled the centromeres toward the poles, dragging both sister chromatids with it Anaphase I
Homologous chromosome pairs have separated and now a member of each pair is at the opposite ends of the spindle Telophase I
Each of the two daughter cells produced in the first meiotic division, a spindle forms, and the chromosomes shorten,coil, and thicken Prophase II
Each of the two daughter cells, the chromosomes line up on the equatorial plate Metaphase II
The centromeres of the chromosomes divide Anaphase II
New nuclear membranes form around the separated chromatids, the spindle dissapears, and the chromosomes uncoil and decondense Telaphase II
Occurring in the semiferous tubules of the testes Spermatogenesis
Formation of the female egg Oogenesis
Smaller cells produced Polar Bodies
Created by: amandafolck