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Brain Matters Exam 2

what is pruning? greatest loss of neurons during the fetal and newborn development
what are the steps of prenatal development? conception, embryo, zygote, all cells are the same in first two week period, fetus after 8 weeks.
what happens 3 weeks after conception? neural plate starts to fold into neural tube
what happens after 4 weeks of conception primary components of CNS develops
what are the different components of the primary CNS? prosencephalon, mesencephalon, rhombencephalon
what happens after 5 weeks of conception? major structures grow
what happens after 6-7 weeks of conception? cerebral cortex blossoms
what happens in the 6th week of conception? secondary CNS formed
what are the components of the secondary CNS? telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon
what happens between 8-12 weeks of conception? cortex forms and cortex covers the tube
what happens between 16-40 weeks of conception? sulci and gyri develop
what are the three layers of the human embryo? ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
when is the brain of an infant deceased? 26 weeks
when does the nervous system develop? through the embryonic and fetal period
when does the heart grow? early
when do the limbs grow? 4th, 5th, and 6th week
what is thalidomide? European women use it for morning sickness which causes devastating effects on development and causes limbs to not fully develop
what is fetal alcohol syndrome? disorder characterized by mental and physical defects when women drink alcohol during pregnancy
what does alcohol do to the brain? kills neurons, affects embryonic and fetal development, alters tissue growth, miscarriage, risks of neurological and growth defiance, and can cause physical defects
what is NTD? neural tube defect - when neural tube fails to close
what is spina bifida? failure to close in spinal cord
how can NTD be detected? ultrasound exam, elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein
What the causes of NTD? unknown
what is the postnatal development? after birth, growth occurs at head first, travels to abdomen, and walking occurs after birth
how long does myelination last? lasts up to 30 years - lasts the longest
what is the brain weight and timing during development? 1/4 of the original brain weight, male brain is larger than female, weight is stable during adult life span
when and what does pruning do? after 10 years, it refines ability frontal cortex to help make decisions
what does the limbic center help with? moves adolescence in mature decision making
what is neural plasticity? ability of brain to respond
what is edward taub and constraint? induced movement therapy for stroke patients
what is the process in which the brain gets from 1-100 billion neurons? Starts with the plate having neural tissue on it, 18 days after conception and as it folds the tube is complete after day 26 of conception
where does the most growth occur? forebrain
after the prosencephalon starts to grow, what happens to it? divides into the telencephalon
what does the diencephalon become? thalamus and hypothalamus
what are the stages for the neuron that occur during the fetal development? mitosis/proliferation, migration, differentiation, aggregation, synaptogenesis, neuron death, synapse rearrangement, myelination
what is mitosis? cell division that turns into cell multiplication at 250,000/min in ventricular zone
what happens to the cells after mitosis? "daughter" cells become fixed post mitotic
what is migration? neurons migrate on radial glial extend from ventricular zone
what are growth cones and what process to they play a part in? migration; migration is facilitated by growth cones at the end of the axon that pulls neurons
what is differentiation? neurons become fixed post mitotic and specialized they develop and process (axons and dendrites) they develop neurotransmitter- making ability they develop electrical conduction they become a neuron type (pyramidal, stellate, granule, purkinje)
what is aggregation? like neurons move together (aggregate) and form layers
what is synaptogenesis? axons with growth cones on end form a synapse with other functions with other neurons or tissue
what provide support from the post- synaptic neuron? optimal senses
the secretion of what sustains pre-synaptic neurons? neurotropic factors
what is neuron death? between 40-75 percent of all neurons born in embryonic and fetal development do not survive they fail to make optimal synapses
what leads to synapse rearrangement? neuron death
what is process that leads up to synapse rearrangement? release and uptake of neurotropic factors, neurons receiving insufficient neurotropic factor die, axonal processes complete for limited neurotropic factor
what is synapse rearrangement? active synapses likely take up neurotrophic factor that maintains the synapse, inactive synapses get too little tropic factor to remain stable
In what two systems does plasticity occur in Sensory and motor
Who is Wilder Penfield founder of Montreal Neurological institute, helped in understanding of the brain
What is the Homunculus "little man", Wilder Penfield came up with it.
The over-representation in the Homunculus occurs where the Face, hands and mouth
most of the frontal cortex is involved with what Movement
the corticospinal tract starts where and ends where it starts in the cortex and comes down the brain and goes to the spinal cord
what is myelination? putting coating on the axon so they conduct faster
how long does myelination continue for? 30 years
what are the five major senses? touch, smell, taste, hearing, and vision
what is olfaction? smell
what is gustation? taste
what is audition? hearing
what are proximal senses? impinges directly on receptor
what are the proximal senses? touch, taste, and smell
what are distal senses? generated from remote source
what are the distal senses and when do they develop? audition (sound waves) and vision (light); develop later
what the features of sensory systems? receptors, sensory relays, synapses in nuclei, synapses in thalamus, projection to primary cortical, projections to secondary cortical
what is the first step in the sensory system? receptor
what does the receptor do? translates environmental input to the brain -has rods and cones for vision that is located in the back of the retina
what two structures modulate movements Cerebellum and basal ganglia
What are the cerebellum and basal ganglia also involved in besides modulating movement involved in some forms of learning
the basal ganglia are essential for what? Procedural learning and memory
exercise increase what factor. it increases the brain derived neurotrophic factor
Neurotrophic factor does what it feeds optimal synapse
Dopamine has a main role in what Movement
Dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in what the Basal Ganglia
What is Parkinson's Disease a major loss of substantia nigra neurons
Treatment for Parkinson's disease L-dopa
what is semantic memory from knowledge base
what is Episodic memory Knowledge about a personal experience
what is the second step in the sensory system? sensory relays
what do the sensory relays do? carry sensory information to the brain through neural pathways (axons) receptors send action potentials
what is the third step in the sensory system? synapses in nuclei
what is the process of the synapse in the nuclei? moves along sensory pathway
what is the fourth step in the sensory system? synapse in thalmaus
what is the exception in the synapse of the thalamus? smell - olfaction
what is the fifth step in the sensory system? projection to primary cortical
what is the step which includes the projection to primary cortical? area, vision in the occipital
what is the last step in the sensory system? projection to secondary cortical
what is projection to secondary cortical? areas and association areas
what must the nervous system translate into action potentials? the environment
what is transduction? sensory receptors carry out the translation of the environment into action potentials
what do touch receptors transduce? mechanical force into action potentials
what does the ear transduce? sound waves into action potentials
what is the earliest developing sense? touch
what are the chemical senses and when do they develop? taste and smell; they develop prenatally
What is Long Term potentiation occurs when you stimulate two neurons leads to an increase in signal transmission between the neurons that last for hours or even days
What did HM have to help him with epilepsy Bilateral Medial temporal lobe removal
From HM we learned that memory is a what Memory is a process and it happens in the hippocampus
What are the two forms of memory we learned from HM Declarative and Nondeclarative
what is the human olfactory epithelium? located on the lateral wall of the nasal cavity
what does the olfactory epithelium? respond to chemical molecules called odorants
what are chemo-receptors? receptors for smell
What is Declarative memory its things you know that you can tell others
What is nondeclarative memory things you know that you can show by doing
Can HM form new episodic memories Almost no but his semantic memory is intact from his childhood and adolescence
What time period can HM remembered his Childhood and his adolescence
What is Retrograde Amnesia Cannot remember events prior to brain damage
Anterograde Amnesia Cannont remember events that occur after brain damage
What is hippocampal Processing Circuit Input which comes in from hippocampus from the entohinal cortex to dentate gyrus
What did Bliss and LOMO do? They figured out the LTP of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the anaesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path.
what are structural changes associated with LTP in the hippocampus new dendritic spines can be observed to appear after almost one hour after a stimuls that includes LTP
What is Korsakoff's Syndrome Neurological brain disorder causes by the lack of thiamine in the brain – consequence of alcoholism
What are some symptoms of Korsakoff's Syndrome Anterograde and Retrograde amnesia severe memory loss lack of insight apathy
What is dementia LOSING OF THE MIND; cognitive function is declined
Who was the first person with Alzheimer's Aguste D in 1906
what happens to the brain as a result of Alzheimer's ventricles become large due to loss of neurons Big sulci due to loss of tissue Acetylocholine Neurotransmission vastly diminsihes
What two systems contribute to emotions THE PNS and the CNS
what are substrates of emotion in the nervous systems ANS Hypothalamus Amgydala Thalamus Cingulate Cortex Temporal poles
What system is involved in voluntary emotion Corticospinal system
where does the olfactory bulb develop? as an outgrowth from the telencephalon
what are the primary and secondary cortical sensory areas? somatosensory and motor strip
what does the somatosensory cortical sensory area include? post central gyrus
what does the motor strip sensory area include? primary motor cortex
which receptor is complex? auditory
the hairs cells on basilar memnbrane in cochlea are organized by what? frequency
what are the visual system's mapping of the environment? colors show how the different sectors of the visual fields map on to the retina and primary visual cortex
what is the retina? the receptor of the visual system
what did hebb and penfield both contribute to? our understanding of the brain and movement
hebb ____? hebb synapse
penfield _____? homunuculus
what is the hebbian synapse? When you have post-synaptic neuron that is fired by pre-synaptic, other pre-synaptic fail to depolarize and cause an action potential. Those that do have action potential are stronger, will survive.
what is one structure of the limbic system? amygdala
what does the telencephalon bulge into? cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, limbic system
what does the metencephalon turn into? cerebellum and pons
what does the myelencephalon turn into? medulla
what is neurotrophin? chemical that attracts axons to it to help guide migration once the synapse is made
where does the pathway for audition go? up cranial auditory nerve and ends up in superior temporal lobe
Created by: churchill428