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Biochemistry 8th

study guide for physical science and biology final exam

Atomic number number of protons
Atomic mass number of protons and neutrons
Octet rule only 8 valence electrons
Ionic Bond a bond between a non-metal and a metal, transfer of electrons
Covalent Bond a bond between 2 non-metals, sharing of electrons
pH percent hydrogen
Organic Chemistry must contain carbon atoms
Inorganic Chemistry does not contain carbon atoms
Hydroxyl -OH, alcohol
Carbonyl =O, aldehydes and ketones
Carboxyl =O and -H, Carboxylic acids
Amino =O and -OH, Amines
Sulfhydryl -SH, thiols
Phosphate PO4-2, organic phosphates
Proton a positively charged subatomic particle
Sublimation the state changes from a solid to a gas
Law of Conservation of Mass mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction
Isotopes same element but different number of neutrons
Isomers same chemical formula but different structure
Saturated has only single bonds
Unsaturated has at least 1 double or triple bond between the carbons
hydrocarbons organic molecules containing only H and C
Polymer large molecule consisting of many subunits
Monomer 1 subunit
macromolecules large organic polymer
Condensation or Dehydration Synthesis remove water to make polymers
Hydrolysis add water to break polymers
exergonic release energy
endergonic absorb energy
Carbohydrates molecules that store energy and are used as building materials, have 20-30 monosaccharides
Monosaccharides single sugar, may have 3-8 carbons
disaccharides double sugar
polysaccharides many sugars (8-1000)
cellulose major component of plant cell walls
chitin polymer of an amino sugar
Proteins large 3D macromolecules responsible for most cellular functions
Enzymes catalysis that speed up a chemical reaction
Conformation the 3D shape of a protein is determined by its amino acid sequence
Denaturation process which alters native conformation
Nucleic Acids store and transmit hereditary information for all living things, DNA and RNA
Gene a specific segment of a DNA molecule with information for a cell to make 1 polypeptide
Lipids fats, phospholipids, and steroids
Activation Energy minimum energy needed to start a chemical reaction
Created by: TayTay122