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carbohydrates compound - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
monosaccharides simple carb (glucose, fructose, galactose)
disaccharides simple carb (lactose, maltose, sucrose)
polysaccharides complex carb (starch, fiber, glycogen)
maltose glucose + glucose - produced when starch is broken down
sucrose glucose + fructose = sugar
diverticula caused by lack of fiber - found in the GI tract
artificial sweetener non nutritive, safe in moderation
saccharine 0 cals - not digested
aspartame 4 cals/gram - digested
sucralose chlorinated - body does not process (splenda)
fortified nutrients added (weren't originally there)
enriched nutrients added back (iron, thiamin, riboflavin, folate)
daily values FDA recommended daily % values based on a 2000 calorie diet
food labels ingredients listed by prominence in descending order
bran protective coating around grain kernel (nutrients and fiber)
endosperm starch and protein part of grain
germ the seed that grows into wheat
husk inedible part of grain
whole grain contains bran, endosperm, and germ
nutrient claims no implied claims, meets FDA approval
health claims reliable and verified by FDA
structure function claims not approved by the FDA
digestion process where food is broken down into absorbent units
process of digestion mouth - esophagus - stomach - small intestine - large intestine - rectum - anus
absorption passage of nutrients from GI tract to blood/lymph
active transport moving against concentrated gradient (requires energy)
simple diffusion absorbed across cell wall
facilitated diffusion need active carrier
nutrient density the most amount of nutrients for least amount of kcals
lactose glucose + galactose (dairy products)
lactose intolerance inability to digest lactose - missing the lactase enzyme
viscous soluble fibers (decreases cholesterol, delays GI transit)
non viscous non-soluble fibers (accelerates GI transit)
lymphatic system insoluble vitamins/fat particles bypass the blood stream through this system to get to the liver
vascular system blood stream, nutrients are absorbed into here
salivary glands secrete saliva and amylase
gastric glands secrete gastric juices
pancreas secretes pancreatic juices and alkaline
intestinal glands secrete intestinal juices and enzymes
large intestine contains digested fibers, recycled and absorbed products
segmentation contractions (12-26/minute) that mix up chyme and put nutrients in contact with the lining of the intestines to be absorbed
small intestine consists of 1)duodenum 2)jejunum 3)ileum and performs peristalsis and segmentation - 10 ft. long
stomach churning chyme, pyloric sphincter, HCL acid, mucus lines stomach, releases peptidase enzyme
esophagus peristalsis pushes bolus down, sphincter controls the speed
pharynx nasal cavity meets oral cavity
epiglottis prevents bolus from going down trachea (choking)
mouth tounge, teeth, saliva, and amylase
amylase breaks down starch into simple sugar
kcal energy used by body (calorie) carb=4, protein=4, fat=9, alcohol=7
discretionary kcal calories needed to maintain weight
glycemic index classifies food based on potential to raise blood glucose level
glycemic effect extent to which food raises blood sugar level in comparison to pure glucose
diabetes carb metabolism disorder caused by inadequate insulin
hypoglycemia low blood sugar (results in dizziness, shakes) - avoid added sugar
glucogen stimulates the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose
fat production excess carbs are stored as body fat
ketone inadequate carb intake leads to alternative source of fuel
ketosis disturbs body's acid base balance
fiber not broken down by enzyme (non-starch polysaccharide)
sugar alcohol 2 kcal/g resulting in low glycemic response - body processes slowly
lab studies effects of specific variables (cell, tissue, molecule) - animal and invitro [can be controlled but not always applicable for humans]
cohort select group observed over a period of time
tolerable upper levels maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe
average intake average daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion
recommended daily allowances average daily amount of a nutrient consider adequate to meet the known nutrient needs
estimated average requirement average daily amount of a nutrient that will maintain a specific biological/physiological function in half the healthy people
dietary reference intakes a set of values for dietary nutrient intakes of healthy people
% from fat kcal from fat / total kcal
inorganic nutrients no carbon (water, minerals)
organic nutrients contains carbon (carbs, protein, fat - caloric) (vitamins - no cals)
epidemiological studies incidents/distribution of diseases in a population (pro = narrows down cause, raises questions) (con = no control, can't prove cause/effect)
clinical trials human intervention - human beings who follow a specified regimen (pro = can control, applies to humans) (con = can't generalize, certain treatments prohibited)
cross-sectional study what and how much people eat as a cause for disease
case control compare people with and without disease by comparing diets
condensation links 2 reactants together
hydrolysis splits molecule into 2 (during digestion)
gluconeogenesis making of glucose from non-carb source
scientific method 1)observation/question 2)hypothesis 3)prediction 4)experiment 5)reults/interpretations 6)further study
function of carbs provides glucose which fuels most of the body's cells
blood glucose normally 70-100 mg/dl, higher after eating
USDA recommended carbs carbs 130g (45-65% or 3-12 tsp) and fiber 25g
USDA food guide fruits, vegetables, grains, meats/legumes, dairy, oils/fat
GI tract disorders choking, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, ulsers, belching, gas, heartburn, acid refulx, indegestion
healthy GI tract sleep, relaxation, physical activity, state of mind, healthy bacteria, certain food consumption
reliable nutrition sources RD, .gov, .edu, peer review
health effects of starch/fiber weight control, decrease risk of diabetes, heart disease and cancer, improve GI health
digestion of carbs amylase breaks down starch, disaccharides hydrolyzed into monosaccharides as glucose is used as energy (protein used if glucose is absent)
Created by: nazzara