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BMZ Lesson 1

BMZ Lesson 1: Introduction to Evolution

Evolution heritage change in one or more characteristics of a population from one generation to the next. things change through time, natual selection, genetic variation,
Microevolution evolution on a smaller scale, relating to changes in a single gene or allele frequencies in a population over time.
Macroevolution larger scale evolution in relation to the formation of new species or groups of related species.
Discovery based science collection and analysis of data without the need for a preconceived hypothesis. Often leads to hypothesis testing.
Hypothesis Testing creation of a hypothesis, testing, analyzing data, accept or reject hypothesis
Theory Developed through extensive testing and large amounts of data consistency with a vast amount of known data ability to make a correct prediction
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) played key role in developing the theory of evolution.
Homologous Structures same components, common ancestor
Convergent Evolution Do NOT share a common ancestor but look alike
Analogous Similar environmental pressure, NOT COMMON ANCESTOR
Natural Selection Requires Variation, Inheritable, one has to reproduce faster than other.
Lamark (1800) You lose an arm, so does your offspring! AH!
Alleles variant forms of a particular gene
Vestigial Structures anatomical features that have no current function but resemble structures of their presumed ancestors.
homologous genes two or more genes are derived from the same ancestral gene
phenotype observable characteristic
genotype hereditary information, genetic make up
Ultimate source of all genetic variation mutation
Gene Pools complete set of unique alleles in a species or population
Hardy Weinberg Theorem 5 Conditions: 1. NOT evolve, should be infinitely large 2. random mating 3.no selection 4. no mutations 5. no migrations
Founder Effect In population genetics, the founder effect is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.
Bottleneck Effect is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing
Types of Natural Selection 1. Directional 2. Disruptive 3. Stabilizing 4. Balancing
Sexual Selection competition in terms of who is the better breader
1859 pubilshing darwins book about species
Reproductive Isolation prevents one species from breeding with another
Prezygotic reproduction habitat isolation temporal isolation (reproducing at different times of the year) behavioral isolation mechanical isolation (size prevention) gametic isolation
postzygotic reproduction hybrid viability (offspring die) hybrid fertility (output is low or 0) Hybrid Breakdown (works for one generation but then not others)
gradualism changes occur slowly in the form of gradual steps
punctuated equilibrium theory in evolutionary biology which proposes that most sexually reproducing species will experience little evolutionary change for most of their geological history, remaining in an extended state called stasis
anagenesis the evolution of species involving an entire population rather than a branching even
cladogenesis Cladogenesis is the process by which species split into two distinct species,
allopatric speciation seperated, possibly my geographical reasons, and thus creates two new species
sympatric speciation ranges overlap but still not together
Created by: HaiiRaii