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Criminal Justice

Criminal Justice 330 Limestone College

Rationale for community corrections -justifications -avoid harsh sentences -treatment options readily available in the community -cost is lower
Mistakes in classification -common complaint from public is poor supervision -majority of offenders do comply
Net widening pulling minor offenders into the system under supervision who the system believes will be successful
Probation defined the release of convicted offenders into the community under a conditional suspended sentence, avoiding imprisonment
Origins of probation evolved out of judicial reprieve, used in English court to allow for appeal to the crown. Used in the U.S. Illegally used in 1800's in Boston and spread, authorized in 1916 by congress.
John Augustus known as father of probation. A Boston shoemaker. Volunteered his service to the court. 2000 cases, 10 jumped bail.
Who administers or has oversight for the majority of probation cases? the state under the executive branch
Pros of Judicial Placement probation is more responsive to the courts, feedback system between courts and probation staff, courts have greater awareness of resource needs, judges have greater confidence in agency they oversee, higher priority if assigned to judicial branch
Roles of probation officers Information manager, evaluator, enabler, educator, advocate, mediator, community planner, detection, enforcer
Considerations in granting probation social and political attitudes at the time, age rehab potential of the offender,criminal record, past offenses, relationship with family, do they show remorse
Conditions of probation general conditions-all probationers follow specific- tailored to the individual
Violation of probation - two types of violations technical-conditions of the probation are violated New offense- broke the law
Street Time time offender successfully spends under supervision, may be subtracted from prison sentence
Origins of parole 1840, Marks system. Had to earn enough points for good behavior to be released
Alexander Maconochie - Norfolk Island British Naval officer, 1840, penal colony off the island of Sydney, Australia, 3 tier system
Sir Walter Croften - Irish System / Ticket to Leave Influenced by Maconochie, Parliament enacted the Penal Servitude Act which enabled prisoners to be released and be supervised by police. Commissioned to investigate Irish prisons. Director of Irish Penal System, had 4 stages
Organization of Parole Boards people appointed by the governor, 1-3 members, usually chosen with like minds of the Governor.
Violation of Parole vs Violation of probation - what is the difference in its administration a probationer may not have stepped foot in a prison whereas a parolee has been released, probation linked to judicial system-parole administrative function
Parole Violations - Preliminary Hearing purpose is to determine probable cause
Revocation hearings and the right to counsel. both are entitled to counsel, but not a constitutional right
Increase in prison populations during a time of decreasing crime - causes for this media, society fears, increase in prison sentence lengths, drug problem in the country, legislative response to the drug problem, public desire to get tough on crime.
Characteristics of inmate population male, under 30, less than high school education, poor, minority,no intact family, juvenile record or multiple crimes, history of drug use
Vocational and Prison labor programs as they relate to educational aid 1960's federal funds available for training. 1980's overcrowding and budget cuts led to diminishing programs. 1994 no more grants for prisoner higher education. Limited to GED and high school diploma.
Therapeutic communities attempt to create an isolated world within the prison. focuses on individual responsibility and self awareness.One size fits all approach.Push for faith based programs in and out of prison.
Medical and social problems of correctional officers heart disease, smoking, alcoholism, divorce.
Centralization of correctional systems general beliefs belief that one size fits all approach. Prisons should not be run from directors office.
Cross-sex supervision - women correctional officers women inmates largely guarded by men. women challenged the practice because of career disparities. fear of victimization.
Dothard v. Rawlinson ruled ms. rawlinson could not work in violent prison, but could work in another male prison in Alabama.
Inmate views of women correctional officers appreciate the presence of women. concerned about privacy and ability to protect themselves against attack.
Liability in correctional privatization - who is responsible-shared joint responsibility shared joint responsibility
Impact on inmates of super-max prisons mental health risks, physical health, lack of human contact
Main reason inmates are sent to super-max prisons behavioral problems
Causes of prison riots food, racial tension, rules, gangs, mass escape attempts, security issues, alcohol and drugs, inmate conflicts.
Powder keg Theory Pressure Cooker-incidents accumulate
Deprivation / Rising Expectation Theory conditions improve, but not implemented fast enough.
Power Vacuum no strong authority in charge.
View of long-term inmates regarding their surroundings concerned with stability and privacy.
Issues of long-term inmates outside relationships will never be reestablished, institutional friendships that are loss due to releases or transfers.
Sexual assault in prisons actual incidents are low, but propositions are extremely high.
Reasons for decrease in prison rapes Correctional Officer vigilance, sexually transmitted disease.
Argument against the Angola Prison Farm system does nothing to address the real needs of the offender.
Women in prison - population compared to men Raw numbers are lower, however the percentage increase of incarceration is higher.
Women's Liberation Theory is the theory that women's involvement in crime will come to more closely resemble men's as gendered differences between women and men are diminished by women's greater social participation and equality
Women in prison in the 1700s - what was the general belief of these women they were evil and irredeemable.
1873 - First female institution Built in Indiana.Indiana Women's Prison. Max security.
Characteristics of women in prison young, single, disadvantaged economically, minority. Mostly drug offenders and property crime.Slightly older than male counterpart, more educated, less criminal background.
Women in prison and their children more likely to be custodial parent.Few allow newborns and for only short periods.
Women and their relationships in prison - pseudo-families they have identifiable roles such as mother, father, daughter, etc.
HIV and AIDS in female prisons inmate usually positive upon entrance. very little education and prevention once inside. less technology.
Primary reasons women file lawsuits in prison equal protection, lack of programming, adequate medical treatment.
Women correctional officers and civil rights won the right to be hired, promoted, and assigned in a non-gender discriminatory manner.
Job satisfaction differences between men and women correctional officers very few differences, more stress women reported than men.
Cons of Judicial Placement judges trained in law not administration, offenders may receive lower priority to the judges, probation staff assigned unrelated duties to job, courts not service oriented
Created by: leeajtish