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Sociology chapter 10

Affirmative action Positive efforts to recruit minority group members or women for jobs, promotions, and educational opportunities
Amalgamation The process by which a majority group and minority group combine through intermarriage to form a new group.
Anti-Semitism Anti-Jewish prejudice
Apartheid The policy of the South African government designed to maintain the separation of Blacks and other non-Whites from the dominant Whites
Assimilation The process by which a person forsakes his or her own cultural tradition to become part of a different culture.
Black Power A political philosophy promoted by many younger blacks in the 1960’s that supported the creation of Black-controlled political and economic institutions.
Contact hypothesis An interactionist perspective which states that interracial contact between people of equal status in cooperative circumstances will reduce prejudice.
Discrimination The process of denying opportunities and equal rights to individuals and groups because of prejudice or other arbitrary reasons
Ethnic group : A group that is set apart from other because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns.
Ethnocentrism The tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others
Exploitation theory A Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the United States as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism
Genocide The deliberate, systematic killing of an entire people or nation.
Glass ceiling An invisible barrier that blocks the promotion of a qualified individual in a work environment because of the individual’s gender, race, or ethnicity.
Institutional discrimination The denial of opportunites and equal rights to individuals and groups that results from the normal operations of a society.
Issei Japanese immigrants to the United States
Minority group A subordinate group whose members have significantly less control or power over their own lives than the members of a dominant or majority group have over theirs.
Model or ideal minority A group that, despite past prejudice and discrimination, succeeds economically, socially, and educationally without resorting to political or violent confrontations with Whites.
Nisei Japanese born in the United States who were descendants of the Issei.
Pluralism Mutual respect among the various groups in a society for one another’s cultures, which allows minorities to express their own cultures without experiencing prejudice.
Prejudice A negative attitude toward an entire category of people, such as a racial or ethnic minority.
Racial Group A group that is set apart from others because of obvious physical differences.
Racism The belief that one race is supreme and all others are innately inferior.
Segregation The act of physically separating two groups; often imposed on a minority group by a dominant group.
Stereotypes Unreliable generalizations about all members of a group that do not recognize individual differences within the group.
Symbolic ethnicity An ethnic identity that emphasizes such concerns as ethic food and political issues rather than deeper ties to one’s ethic heritage