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Language of Medicine

Ch. 2 Terms Pertaining to the body as a whole

What are the seven parts of a cell? Cell membrane, Nucleus, Chromosomes, Cytoplasm, Mitochondria, Catabolism, Endoplasmic reticulum.
What is Cell Membrane? Surrounds and protects the cell but also regulates what passes into and out of the cell.
What is nucleus? Controls the operations of the cell. It Directs cell division and determines the structure and function of the cell.
What is Chromosomes? Are rod-like structures within the nucleus.
What is cytoplasm? Includes all the material outside the nucleus and enclosed by the cell membrane.
What is mitochondria? Are small, sausage-shaped bodies that, like miniature power plants, produce energy by burning food in the presence of oxygen.
What is endoplasmic reticulum ? Is a network of canals within the cell.
What is Ribosomes? Are small granules that help the cell make protein.
How many chromosomes does egg and sperm cells have? 23 Chromosomes.
What is a chromosome? It contains regions called genes.
What is a gene? It is composed of a chemical called DNA.
What is karyotype? Determines whether the chromosomes are normal in number and structure.
What is catabolism? It is a process where complex foods are broken down into simpler substances.
What is anabalism? It is where small pieces of protein are fitted together like links in a chain to make larger proteins.
What is a muscle cell? Is a long and slender and contains fibers that aid in contracting and releasing.
What is epithelial cell? It is square and flat and provides protection.
What is a nerve cell? Is long and has various fibrous extensions that aid in its job of carrying impulses.
What is a fat cell? Contains large, empty spaces for fat storage.
What is epithelial tissue? Is located all over the body and forms the linings of internal organs and the outer surface of the skin covering the body.
What is a histologist? Is a scientist who specializes in the study of tissue.
What is muscle tissue? Is a voluntary muscle found in the arms and legs and parts of the body where movement is under conscious control.
What is connective tissue? It is a tissue that attaches itself to bones and blood.
What is nerve tissue? It conducts impulses all over the body.
What is viscera? Is a internal organ that you can find in the liver, stomach, intestines,pancreas, spleen and gallbladder.
What is systems? Are groups of organs working together to perform complex functions.
Digestive system mouth,pharynx(throat), esophagus, stomach, intestines(small and large), liver, gallbladder, pancreas.
Urinary or excretory system Kidneys,ureters, urinary bladder,urethra.
Respiratory System nose, pharynx,larynx(voice box), trachea(windpipe), bronchial tubes, lungs(where the exchange of gases take place).
Reproductive System Female: ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus(womb), vagina, mammary glands. Male: Testes and associated tubes, urethra, penis, prostate gland.
Endocrine System Thyroid gland(in the neck), pituitary gland(at the base of of the brain), sex glands(ovaries and testes), adrenal glands, pancreas(islets of langerhans), parathyroid glands.
Nervous System brain, spinal cord, nerves, and collections of nerves.
Circulatory System heart, blood vessels(arteries, veins, and capillaries), lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland.
Musculoskeletal System muscles, bones, and joints.
Skin and Sense Organs System skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous(oil) glands; eye,ear,nose, and tongue.
What is adipose tissue? A collection of fat cells.
What is cartilage? Flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints.
What is larynx? "Voice Box"; located at the upper part of the trachea.
What is pharynx? "Throat"; serves as the common passageway for both food and air.
What is pituitary gland? Endocrine gland at the base of the brain.
What is thyroid gland? Endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck.
What is trachea? "Windpipe"(tube leading from the throat to the bronchial tubes).
What is ureter? One of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the urinary bladder.
What is urethra? Tubes from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.
What is uterus? The womb. The organ that holds the embryo/fetus as it develops.
What is abdominal cavity? Space below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines; also called abdomen.
What is cranial cavity? Space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull.
What is diaphragm? Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
What is dorsal(posterior)? Pertaining to the back.
What is mediastinum? Centrally located space between the lungs.
What is pelvic cavity? space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs.
What is peritoneum? Double-layered membrane surrounding the abdominal organs.
What is pleura? Double-layered membrane surrounding each lung.
What is Pleural cavity? Space between the plueral membranes and surrounding each lung.
What is spinal cavity? Space within the spinal column(backbones) and containing the spinal cord. Also called the spinal canal.
What is thoracic cavity? Space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs.
What is ventral(anterior) Pertaining to the front.
What is Vertabra Two or more backbones
Vertebral Pertaining to backbones
Viscera Internal Organs
Visceral Pertaining to internal organs
Created by: manuntd24