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Chapter 16 - ANT2410

Culture, Change, & the Modern World

view that people in poor nations had traditional cultures and ways of thinking that opposed rationalism was characteristic of revitalization movements
belief that governments should be small and should promote free trade, and individual initiative neoliberalism
according to the authors of text, most important in controlling population is __ __ of people in poor countries improving life-chances
more than 800,000 people were killed and every level of society was involved 1994 genocide in Rwanda
critical thing that anthropology teaches us is problems we face are, ultimately, not the result of __ __, and thus, solutions are possible human nature
one thing anthropologists working in development do is try to __ __ __ of economists to believe that everyone thinks alike and responds to the same incentives counter the tendency
some anthropologists are critical of __ because they do not believe that people should buy into the practices of governments and other agencies behind __ __ development; development programs
projects aimed at providing access to clean water, education, and health care for the poorest of the world’s people basic human needs approach
notion that some countries are poor because they have small industrial plants and few lines of communication and that they should pursue wealth by acquiring these and other things development
total value of all goods and services produced in a country gross national income (GNI)
model of development that predicts that nonindustrial societies will move in the social and technological direction of industrialized nations modernization theory
corporation that owns business enterprises or plants in more than one nation multinational corporation (MNC)
political and economic policies that promote free trade, individual initiative, and minimal government regulation of the economy, and oppose state control or subsidy to industries and all but minimal aid to impoverished individuals neoliberalism
development policy promoted by Western nations, particularly the United States, that requires poor nations to pursue free-market reforms in order to get new loans from the International Monetary Fund and World Bank structural adjustment
generally a pejorative term for a factory with working conditions that may include low wages, long hours, inadequate ventilation, and physical, mental, or sexual abuse sweatshop
officially called the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, an international agency that provides technical assistance and loans to promote international trade and economic development, especially to poor nations World Bank
World Bank has often been criticized for __ in the affairs of poor nations interfering
adjusting GNI for price differences between nations purchasing power parity
44 Alliad nations of WWII established International Monetary Fund & International Bank for Reconstruction & Development Breton Woods agreement 1944
goal was to stabilize international financial system & provide loans/credits, first for reconstruction of war-ravaged Europe then for economic development in poorer nations International Monetary Fund & International Bank for Reconstruction & Development
model of progress promoted by Western nations from end of WWII was called __ theory modernization
modernization theory started w/presumptions that colonies were poor because they had undeveloped, backwards economies
assumed that several hundred years ago all areas of world were economically undeveloped & culturally dominated by tradition modernization theorists
condition of life so degraded by disease, illiteracy, malnutrition, & squalor as to deny its victims basic human necessities & condition of life so common as to be the lot of some 40% of people of developing countries absolute poverty
neoliberalism lead to new approach to development structural adjustment
structural adjustment policies have increased __ within nations & __ remains an intractable problem inequalities; poverty
grass-roots organization that offers small loans to women over the world Grameen Bank
anthropologists think in terms of understanding __ __ rather than __ __ entire system; single elements
reports that development in general & conservation in particular are never as simple as they may seem Igoe
multinational corporations seek most profitable place to produce & market their goods & services regardless of national boundaries
no corporation controls more than __ __ of economy of any rich nation small percentage
financial power of multinational corporations enables them to exert __ __ on poor nations enormous influence
financial power of multinational corporations makes it extremely difficult for nations to __ & __ policies that can effectively regulate them set; enforce
fundamental goal is to return wealth to their shareholders, vast majority live in wealthy nations multinationals
multinational corporations contribute to persistence of __ __ in poorer nations colonial-style relationships
large areas of S/E Asia incl. China, S Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, & Bangladesh might be considered sweatshop belt