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Chapter 14 - ANT2410

Creative Expression: Anthropology & the Arts

animation; usually refers to animation of manga/comic book graphic art anime
anime is in __ __ of Japan popular culture
forms of creative expression that are guided by aesthetic principles and involve imagination, skill, and style arts
musical form that is mixing w/British pop music & reggae to become popular form of world music bhangra
bhangra originated in folk music of __ in N. India & E. Pakistan Punjab
marking and adorning the body as an expression of cultural and personal identity, or which serves other functions body art
application of aesthetic principles to the production of utilitarian objects and activities crafts
performances that are expressive forms of culture with functions similar to the other arts deep play
drawings made by some Native American peoples to record personal and historical events ledger drawings
Japanese comic book art manga
scholarship and art generated by Europeans, representing their views of the Middle East Orientalism
contemporary visual arts and cultural performances of non-Western peoples, as they are increasingly part of a capitalistic global art world that includes international collections, museum exhibits, and tourism world art
incorporates different musical styles from cultures throughout the world world music
art is a(n) __ aspect universal
art is guided by __ __ involving imagination, beauty, skill, & style aesthetic principles
painting, architecture, sculpture, carving, pottery, & weaving are considered __ & __ arts graphic; plastic
application of aesthetic principles to produce utilitarian objects & activities as art crafts
music, song, poetry, folklore, & myths are considered __ __ of sound as art structured use
dance, sports, games, & play are __ of human body considered art movements
in Japan, __ __ is considered an art form tea drinking
in Spain, __ is considered art form bullfighting
in China & Islamic Middle East, __ is considered art form calligraphy
fundamental dimension of human species artistic expression
tools manufactured according to aesthetic principles, embellishment of burial sites beyond practical, & sophisticated/complex cave paintings/sculptures of prehistoric human’s indicate __ __ between arts & being human inherent connection
earliest group to artistically embellish their world; ritual burials w/flower, animal teeth/bone pendants, & shaped various ritual objects Neanderthals
cultures where making living difficult & social structure fairly simple tend to exhibit __ __ skills, such as Inuit & aboriginal Australian groups sophisticated artistic
characteristic of all art is __ of cultural themes expression
understanding of art in relation to culture being represented cultural themes
expression of art can be __ or __ conscious; unconscious
creative expression __ to different aspects of culture attaches
art is not produced or performed for sole purpose of giving __, but is __ from other activites pleasure; inseparable
separation of art from other social behaviors & class of objects/acts labeled as art, is a dimension of __ __ of modern society fragmented nature
art is embedded in almost all aspects of culture in __ societies nonindustrial
highly developed artistic skill, no separate word for art, all artificial objects lumped together as “that which has been made” Inuit
Inuit plastic art was traditionally applied to manufacture of objects w/primarily __ __, such as tools, amulets, & weapons instrumental value
Inuit do not make distinction between __ & __, as is similar in other nonindustrial societies artists; craftworkers
in West creative arts such as dance, weaving, singing, & playing of musical instruments are performed as a special __ __ __ called the arts category of behavior
societies, other then West, dance, weaving, singing, & playing of musical instruments are connected with __ __ activities such as religion, exchange, or storytelling other cultural
competence in artistic skills does not necessarily translate into __ __ of artist, in all societies specialized role
Western emphasis has led to underestimating role of artist in societies where arts conforms more to cultural norms originality
Western emphasis on __ & __ has led to conceptualizing artists’ as special people (deviants), working alone, & more likely in opposition to than in harmony w/society innovation; difference
usually absent in art production in non-Western societies Western perception of artist
interaction w/audience is central importance because much art aimed at conveying message through its content, & important function in community life art in Africa
contemporary Western identification of art w/originality, when imposed on other cultures, is ethnocentric
evidence indicates making of art in all cultures recognized as a(n) __ __, although not necessarily innovative process creative process
creation of something entirely new originality
improvisation more highly valued than artistic originality & creativity expressed in creating interesting & endless __ on already established __ themes variations; artistic
believe only one right way to sing a song; improvisation not valued, foreign music dangerous & not for __ Navajo
in other Navajo arts, weaving styles __ __ but innovation permitted & traders may encourage innovation to increase sales where marketing is motive remain stable
arts are a means of __ __ through images & marking real world __ interpreting world; symbolically
art expresses basic __, __ & __ of reality in ways that are culturally meaningful themes; values; perceptions
art is a __ of cultural values & patterns & at same time __ experience of these cultural values reflection; intensifies
much of power of the arts comes from its __ __which leaves production/performance open to __ of interpretations symbolic nature; variety
artistic production/performance may convey basic cultural theme
artistic production/performance may combine several themes
cultural themes in artistic production/performance may be in opposition to one another
important anthropological perspective on arts is to understand surface & deep __ __ through which arts __ & __ responses from participants/audience symbolic structures; communicate; elicit
image that stands for something else symbolic art
paintings, masks, sculptures, sounds or movements art products or performances
in some cultures, art products/performances are believes not merely to __ but to partake of the __ of the thing visualized represent; spirit
under specific ritual conditions, in some cultures, the __ travels into the mask, painting, or dancer, which itself becomes __ spirit; powerful
when objects, dances, songs, or other artistic forms are believed to be __ they are often created strictly guided by __ __ and resistant to variation/change powerful; traditional processes
relationship between __ & __ is an important cultural factor that may limit range of variation on an artists’ displays art; religion
where art & religion are combined there tends to be more __ in creation of images stability
experimentation, innovation, & real change in artistic style are more likely to occur in cultures where religion/art have become __ separated
religious groups may attempt to __ __ on art they consider __ impose limits; sacrilegious
1999 Rudolph Giuliani w/backing of Catholic Church made unsuccessful attempt to close down exhibit featuring painting of __ __ that incorporated elephant dung Black Madonna
religious leaders in US put pressure on media to exclude showing portion of __ 2000 concert in Rome incorporating __ __ Madonna’s; mock crucifixion
artistic forms are powerful means of symbolic __, conveying __ & provoking interpretation & emotions that have both individual & cultural __ communication; knowledge; dimensions
each culture has specific __ __ __ that stand for things/events in nature/human society or are associated with particular __ traditional artistic symbols; emotions
one of important contributions of anthropological perspective on art is ability to convey the __ __ symbolic elements to outsiders culturally specific
uses minor scale to convey emotion of sadness Western music
important in evoking emotion because people in that culture have been taught the association traditional element
knowledge of traditional elements sets stage for audience to respond __ in certain ways emotionally
each artistic endeavor __ an artistic style embodies
refers to characteristic manner of expression & different cultures/artists have different ones artistic style
__ principles are often very stable aesthetic
indicates that artistic styles of many cultures changed very slowly over time archaeological evidence
artistic styles are often used by archaeologists to characterize different __ __ in a culture chronological periods
artistic styles are often used by archaeologists to __ different cultures in region from each other differentiate
artistic styles are often used by archaeologists to trace out connections between different __ __ prehistoric cultures
artistic styles are often used by archaeologists to speculate about __ & __ __ in ancient cultures who either had no writing systems or writing systems are not understood life; social structures
cultures also differ in their artistic __ emphasis
in some cultures __ & __ are most important media for expression of aesthetic values & technical skills masks; paintings
in some cultures, __ __ are more important, reflected in wealth of myths, folktales, & word games verbal skills
writing is one of defining attributes of civilization & key source of cultural identity & unity China
in China, writing was __ __ of legitimacy & appeared on state monuments & documents ruler’s instrument
calligraphy most respected of graphic arts because of visual representation of Koran Islam
Islamic cultures influenced by religious prohibitions of Persia, has led to emphasis on __ __ & __ in much Islamic Arabic art geometric design; calligraphy
where cultures seem to have similar __ of artistic form, the __ __ may be very different emphasis; cultural meaning
art functions in society to express symbolic element in __ ritual
art functions in society to __ cultural themes display
art functions in society by confirming __ __ by making visible power of __ or government __ social hierarchy; state; elite
art functions in society to __ __ by giving expression to voices from margins resist authority
art functions in society to express personal & social __ identities
sometimes rules for creation & display of artistic endeavors are determined by __ in ways that confirm & extend __ elites; domination
allow only people in certain social statuses to wear certain material goods sumptuary laws
example of art used to resist domination of the state graffiti
art is used to intensify ideas of __ nationhood
art is used to express & record ethnic __ & __ identities; histories
art is used to make __ statements political
artistic expression using __ __ & __ is powerful way of communicating with & attempting to control natural/supernatural worlds ritual acts; objects
dance movements that imitate movements of animals are believed to exert control over those animals; dependence on nature leads to perception of it as an active/personal force to which people must appeal in order to survive hunting & gathering cultures
artistic expressions may represent ritual restoration to nature of animals that are killed contemporary hunting societies
among most spectacular remains left by early Homo sapiens & provides understanding of connections between art & ritual Paleolithic cave art
about 32,00 years old earliest save paintings
about 10,000 years old most recent cave paintings
caves in Europe, which were area that supported abundant & varied animal/plant species best-known Paleolithic cave art sites
Altamira caves in Spain & Grottle Chauvet caves in France are sites of __ __ save paintings most elaborate
cave artists used naturally occurring __ & __ in rock to make animal portrayals more realistic bulges; dips
cave artists __ __ rock in low relief, to make work more dramatic partially sculpted
Paleolithic artists made __ pieces & __ costume; jewelry
Paleolithic artists __ & __ human figures & ritual & ceremonial objects carved; engraved
Paleolithic artists placed elaborate __ __ in burial sites grave goods
Paleolithic artists made __ __ that may indicate some for of record keeping patterned notations
Paleolithic artists made systems of __ & __ in addition to their paintings signs; symbols
many images by Ice Age artists indicate __ & __ characteristics or behavior of various animal species sexual; seasonal
Ice Age art were not simply __, but symbols that stood for __ in nature illustrations; processes
Ice Age cave art also contains frequent markings of __ __ human hands
theories about implications of cave art speculate that a hunter drew image of animal kill in sacred spot in order to __ its __ to nature restore; essence
arts can heighten feeling of belonging to particular group by generating __ __ intense emotions
art forms are not merely a(n) mirror of culture
by displaying & conforming values of members of society hold in common, art heightens social & cultural __ integration
death, pride, gender relations are universal themes in art
universal themes expressed through powerful artistic symbols are culturally __ & therefore culturally __ particular; compelling
art makes __ __ __ visible, tangible, & thus more emotionally compelling dominant cultural themes
cultural themes & values, & psychological foundations of a culture may be __ expressed, but art also expresses the __ explicitly; unconscious
in art a repressed aspect of a culture is considered unconscious expression
phenomenon analyzed in terms of how provides particularly direct view of repressed unconscious of a culture, incl. creators, consumers & broader culture/society itself pop culture
nerd or geek, obsession w/themes of war & violence, incl nuclear catastrophes, mutant monsters, robots, & sci-fi, sometimes joined w/kawaii otaku
cuteness; display of images of Lolita-like preadolescent, seemingly innocent, schoolgirls, who also convey sexual knowingness the belies their innocence kawaii
cuteness image from Japan; big-eyes, beribboned, expressionless pussycat character w/out a mouth to express emotion Hello Kitty
awakened from eons of submarine sleep by hydrogen bomb explosion; exhibits radiation-induced physical deformities & engages in nightly attacks on Tokyo reducing city & people to ashes Godzilla
interprets contemp. Pop culture of anime/manga/otaku subculture growing out of repercussions of Japanese defeat by US & dropping on A-bomb, & post-war society dominated by American-imposed democratization & demilitarization Takashi Murakami
Murakami emphasize that Japan has not really examined its __ for events in WWII & post-WWII responsibility
Murakami emphasizes denying WWII event traumas created __ __ such as anxiety, shame, & pervasive sense of impotence which find their outlets in pop culture displaced emotions
Murakami reinforces view that Japan’s postwar dependence on US has kept it from __ __ growing up
reflected in popular fascination in Japan w/fantasies of violence & power, frequently used in anime infantilism
infantilism & sense of powerlessness also shows up in Japan’s __ __ with cuteness opposite obsession
cross-cultural fertilization in anime including elements of __ culture African-American
new combination of hip-hop & Japanese anime, w/athletic black teenager break-dancing across titles Tenjho Tenge
new anime series with hip-hop soundtrack Infinite Ryvius
one of main characters uses break-dance spins & flips in place of martial arts moves Samurai Champloo
for fashion-conscious Japanese teenagers, __ __ __ now is “cool, black, and American” height of fashion
new phenomenon, small groups of Japanese & American anime fans digitally record Japanese animated TV shows, translate dialogue, add subtitles, & make available for free online fansubbing
emphasizes potential for anthropological & ethnographic research exploring cultural context of Japanese pop cultures & global interactions of its participants Ian Condry
calls performances deep play; cockfighting, falcon hunting, football, & bullfighting are examples Clifford Geertz
deep play are __ __of culture that heighten emotions, display compelling aspects of social structure/culture, & reinforce cultural identity expressive forms
consuming passion of Balinese; competition for prestige among men; intense identification w/animals w/much time spent caring, discussing, & looking at them cockfighting
in identifying w/his animal, Balinese man identifying with his __ __ __ ideal masculine self
in identifying w/his animal, Balinese man identifying with what he most fears, hates & fascinated by __ __ __ that animal represents powers of darkness
cockfight embodies opposition of __ & __ man; beast
cockfight embodies __ __ of aroused masculinity creative power
cockfight embodies __ __ of loosened animality destructive power
central to Balinese cockfighting & basic part of competition for prestige that forms deep play aspect gambling
Balinese cockfighting, money is tied with esteem, honor & dignity; money risked is taking public risk with one’s __ __ own masculinity
driving force in Balinese society & central driving force of cockfight, transforming it into “status bloodbath” prestige
refer to as “playing with fire without getting burned” in Balinese cockfighting status concerns
cockfighting activates village & kin group __ & __ in “play” rivalries; hostilities
expression of open interpersonal & intergroup __ almost never happens in course of __ Balinese life aggression; ordinary
bullfighting is a(n) __ __ aesthetic ritual
culturally compelled not to show any sign of anger/aggression bullfighter
involve complex & elaborate process of ritualized violence that makes it not only acceptable but beautiful bullfighting
point of a bullfight is __, __, & __ of bullfighter that is critical skill; grace; courage
bullfighting embodies values of male __ in defense of mal __ of honor competition; self-image
symbolizes role of honorable male in bullfight; does not initiate violence; skilled, self-controlled, & calm; able to master situation w/out becoming violent himself matador
for the audience, in a bullfight, __ __of honor is in physical shakedown, in public, between two men maximum vindication
matador who performs a “sloppy” kill is called murder
for Spanish, bullfight is not example of indulging in __ __ __ man’s animal nature
for Spanish, bullfight is a performance that allows man to transcend his animal nature of violence & aggression & to display all of elegance, poise, & self-control that distinguishes man of __ from man of __ honor; anger
power embodied in ruler/state represented through graphic, oral, or architectural/performing arts politically complex & hierarchical societies
reiterate/legitimate divine/other source of ruler’s power & political structure through which society is governed artistic display
art that reflect/send powerful message about importance of social hierarchy in Native American on NW coast of N America totem poles
example of art legitimate social hierarchy & power, contributing to stability, especially in transitional times paintings of colonial Peru
in order to keep alive memory of rulers for those claiming royal descent & noble status, indigenous artists commissioned to paint portraits of __ __, after Spanish conquest of Peru Inca kings
asserted claims to high status & power in colonial hierarchy by depicting their own forebears in paintings upper-class natives of Peru
visual language of European culture paintings
Chinese believe only those w/knowledge of past could have vision of __ future
essential imperial Chinese courts possess historical __ & __ to display knowledge writings; paintings
life-size portraits of emperor had to incorporate (2) main Chinese ideals of __ __ imperial rule
moral authority & power of emperor’s central role in a control bureaucratic administration are the (2) main __ ideals of imperial rule Chinese
paintings of Chinese emperor had to show him with __ __ representing humanistic Confucian values of compassion & virtue whole conveying imposing demeanor of absolute ruler individualized features
Chinese imposing demeanor of absolute ruler, the __ of __ Son; Heaven
displaying paintings of Chinese cultural heroes demonstrated emperor’s identification with __ past & his rightful place in lineage of __ __ mythological; Confucian rulers
resistance to prevailing social structure is important dimension in __ & other __ __ folktales; oral traditions
may reverse, ridicule, or question social order & in doing so may provide satisfactory solutions to conflicts that arise out of domination & control oral traditions
commonly contain figure of trickster who is smaller/weaker than opponent but triumphs through wits rather than through force African-American oral traditions
obvious relation to slavery in pre-Civil Rights South; represents social structure based on race; message about how to overcome system & provide outlet for anger Br’er Rabbit
Br’er Rabbit stories are direct descendent of __ __ of W Africa & were also possibly responses to those local hierarchies Anansi stories
openly displays his arrogance & virility, supplementing trickster; image diffused into blaxoploitation films of 1970s & into gangsta figure in hip-hop & gangsta rap badman
one of most important artistic efforts & performances are those representing __ & continuity of __ __ ancestors; group identity
artistic efforts & performances display cultural identity & history in ways that are visible, tangible, & emotionally compelling, of particular importance to __ cultures illiterate
ledger drawing of some Native American groups are example of use of art to __ history & __ cultural identity record; preserve
practice of carving a record of their chiefs into canes Iroquois
many of __ __ told by Native American groups demonstrate resilience of people who have experienced great hardship old stories
Native American ledge drawings provide a __ __ record, way for people to __ themselves in history beyond myths & legends readable historical; anchor
ledger art got its name from the ledger books obtained from __ __ in which Native Americans drew their records trading posts
ledger drawings were made only by __ and initially served mainly to record lost life of __, __ & __ men; warfare; hunting; tribal identity
turn of 19th century Native Americans using drawings on skin shirts, robes & teepee covers to record __ __ personal histories
by 1860s ledger art became more elaborate, colored & carefully composed, & original materials of warded expanded to include social customs & communal history
ledger drawings flourished as __ __ from 1870s-1920s art form
when 70 Native Americans (S Cheyenne) imprisoned at Ft Marion in St Augustine scores of ledger drawings produced, which was a time of __ __ __ profound cultural trauma
body art & adornments serves to announce identification with __ __ or mark their __ __ in society particular group; social position
body tattooing indicates social status Polynesia
body tattoos developed as form of decoration identifying men on margins of society, such a criminals Japan
people who get tattoos are often in military, motorcycle group, college students Western societies
popularity of piercing/tattooing indicates that these forms of body decoration are now part of __ mainstream
in many cultures body art associated with enhancing beauty, thus related to gender
orange-red dye made from leaves of small shrub henna
henna used to dye fingernails & other parts of hands/feet to enhance woman’s beauty, especially on ceremonial occasions such as religious holidays/marriage India & Middle East
young girl 1st decorated w/henna 3-4 in prep for Muslim holiday of Ramadan Morocco
cultural importance of henna primarily related to __ & marks __ of girl to woman marriage; transition
first night in 3-day marriage celebration night of henna
girl decorated w/henna toward end of pregnancy; viewed as way of preventing illness/misfortune by placating malevolent spirits call jinn henna party
Muslim New Year is another occasion for decorating married women with henna month of Muharram
art depicting any figures/forms found in nature/culture representational art
henna parties are occasions where women are __ __ __ center of attention
personal identity deeply connected to artist’s body work, & art critics/historians often try to link artist’s personal identity with their art European-based cultures
profoundly influenced by Mexican Revolution; married to Diego Rivera Frida Kahlo
great Mexican muralist Diego Rivera
votive painting of Christian saints & martyrs; Frida Kahlo retablos
archetypical, sexually voracious predator & evil woman who stands in contrast to saintly wife/mother Mexican folklore image La Llorona
indigenous Mexican Tehuana costume of long embroidered skirt & blouse expressed Frida Kahlo’s __ w/peasants & poor of Mexico solidarity
Kahlo’s paintings evidenced dualistic principles of dark/light & day/night which have origin in pre-Columbian myth
examined imbalance of power between Mexico & US, images of her broken body reflect shattered dreams of Mexican Revolution Kahlo
combined historical images w/abstract expressionism & pop art of Native American life Scholder
generated outraged responses among both native & non-native viewers because it broke taboo on talking about ways alcoholism devastated so many Indian lives Indian with Beer Can
differences in museum exhibits of Western & non-Western art implicitly distinguishes between __ us of West and non-Western __ other civilized; primitive
Europeans most often responded to encounters w/other peoples by creating categories of __ & __ us; them
art depicts not only the __, that is the cultural in-group, but also the __, the alien/foreigner/outsider we; other
artistic products may reflect subjects of art but are also source of insight into __ of artist, reflecting cultural __ one group entertains about another insight; fantasies
artistic images of __ may be useful as historical document, portraying details of behavior/costume outsiders
unknown aspects of foreigners invites imagination in which reality of __ becomes subordinate to fantasies of __ observed; observers
N Africa, Arabia, Levant, Ottoman Empire in 19th century; viewed as despotic, statis, & irrational; land of mystery, fairy tales, exotic beauty Orient
by mid-19th century __ __ had become part of French cultural spirit in style called Orientalism Egyptian experience
Europeans saw __ __ as threatening because perceived it as __ European civilization Oriental other; opposite
emphasized exoticism & glamour of Oriental markets, camel caravans, & snake charmers Orientalist paintings
captured not in its religious experience but in architecture of its mosques & practice of prayer, all portrayed in lavish, opulent detail Islam in Orientalist paintings
cultural themes in Orientalist paintings were gender roles & relationships
most common symbol of Oriental masculinity, painted in more relaxed poses, drinking coffee, or smoking hookah Arab warriors
central to European fantasies of period of Orientalism women
women were portrayed as Orient’s __ __ whether hidden behind veil or revealed in harem greatest temptation
painted for male patrons by male artists, offered convenient way of feeding European lust by displaying dominant men & vulnerable women of another culture harems & slave markets
comic strip of colonial morality; reveal preoccupation of Europeans w/veiled female body postcards
Oriental female, more tempting because she is behind the veil in forbidden harem, represented French fantasy of __ inaccessibility
connects Orientalist fantasies to colonial reality, noting that raiding of women has always been dream & obsession of total victor Alloula
reflected long-standing conflict between Christian Europeans & Middle Eastern Muslims Orientalist representations of women
in global context, boundaries between “high” & “low” arts & __ concepts of “primitive” & “tribal” art are increasingly __ stereotyped; contrasted
concept of world art incorporates examination of Western & international art worlds, in which arts of __ __ are increasingly circulated indigenous peoples
quite willing to manipulate both art objects & info about their production to meet demands of Western buyers art middlemen in W Africa
has now become important factor in both understanding & marketing their arts identification of tribal artists
importance of artist in N American societies contrasts w/more general emphasis of __ __ in indigenous society anonymous artist
Anglo-American interest in developing & marketing indigenous arts in US helped create __ of artist where it did not previously exist status
star in pueblo pottery revival; romanticized image of Native American woman potter Maria Martinez
arts have always been important in __ cultural boundaries marketing
promoted by popular Western TV shows about non-Western cultures, worldwide sale of ethnic art, traveling museum shows, circulation of tribal arts among Western collectors, & tourism linking of arts to cultural identity
artistic objects/performance that have origins in ritual/social life may become, through __, core around which modern cultural identities are constructed & important source of __ tourism; income
often debases indigenous, culturally authentic, & creative art into mass-produced souvenirs of low quality, lacking any cultural meaning tourism
tourism can __ & __ cultural identities by revising respect for traditional art forms support; reaffirm
interest of tourism in cultural performances given such an event an economic boost & allowed local troupes to buy new instruments for gamelan orchestras & new costumes Bali
ritually & socially significant cultural elements change __ as they become part of staged performances for tourists or move from original cultural context into world art market meaning
more recent anthropological interests in art are ways in which artworks of nonindustrialized societies have become __ in process of globalization commodities
more recent anthropological interests in art are ways in which artworks of nonindustrialized societies have become re-conceptualized __ & __ to meet worldwide demand functionally; stylistically
traditional gate keepers of Western concepts of art; claim great art measured & responded to in terms of universal intrinsic artistic qualities art historians
emphasize art is culturally mediated perspective through which art is not only produced but viewed anthropologists
one’s education, social status, knowledge about reputation of artist, commercial value of art, & Western perceptions of nonindustrial cultures cultural factors viewer brings to art
major point of contact between Western viewers & art of indigenous cultures museum exhibits
museums originated as national __ __, scientific institutions, preservers of disappearing cultures, & __ collections treasure houses; ethnographic
trying to understand what art contributed to functioning of society functionalist view of art
primitive art in civilized places Sally Price
objects taken from original cultural contexts & found way into Western museums & art collections life histories
category indicated ethnocentric limitations of Western world view; very construction of category called “primitive art” was example of cultural imperialism
repression of ethnographic context, meaning & intention in exhibition of indigenous art made “primitives” seem less than __ & consolidated Western feelings of __ human; superiority
claimed art museum exhibits of decontextualized non-Western art emphasizing antique, pure, & authentic, ignored actual values of those who made art & placed art within Western capitalist culture, as commodities James Clifford
museum exhibits themselves have become subject of __ __ due to postmodernism influence ethnographic inquiry
museums __ & __ our perceptions of other culture reflect; influence
mainly subsistence cultivators; two artistic products of tongkonan & tau-tau Toraja
ancestral house; linked to family prestige because visual symbol of one’s descent group; ranked according to age & illustriousness of founding family tongkonan
wooden effigies of nobles carved in connection w/mortuary ritual; carved only for wealthiest nobility; important symbol of aristocratic status tau-tau
ethnographer of Toraja; tau-tau & tongkonan are key elements in cultural, political & economic struggle to define many cultural identities Kathleen Adams
Toraja, tau-tau & tongkonan are key elements in cultural, political & economic struggle to define cultural identity in their __ social hierarchy local
Toraja, tau-tau & tongkonan are key elements in cultural, political & economic struggle to define cultural identity in relation to a __ __ social hierarchy regional multiethnic
Toraja, tau-tau & tongkonan are key elements in cultural, political & economic struggle to define cultural identity in larger __ state Indonesian
Toraja, tau-tau & tongkonan are key elements in cultural, political & economic struggle to define cultural identity in __ __ wider world
because of emotional power of material objects, in particular art, Toraja’s tau-tau & tongkonan become important arena for __ & __ social hierarchy embodying; challenging
a descent identity, or __ __, in Toraja is central to social structure social rank
nobles in Toraja society big people
non-nobles in Toraja society ordinary people
__ __ of tongkonan communicates status of its members visual aspect
tongkonan of __ are fully carved & adorned w/intricate patterns nobility
tongkonan of ordinary people traditionally restricted to carving __ __ of their houses small portions
tongkonan of slaves were __ from decorating houses prohibited
relationship between tongkonan, family prestige & power is reinforced by __ in public rituals consecration
public rituals of tongkonan invoke glorious members of one’s ancestral kin & boost __ __ __ one’s own prestige
Indonesian government’s use of tongkonan imagery on __ & __ give Toraja important identity as part of Indonesian state currency; stamps
because of tourist interest in tongkonan Toraja were __ by Indonesian officials to alter them forbidden
Torajan art also define Toraja in context of regional ethnic __ politics
two important Muslim ethnic groups among Toraja Bugis & Makassarese
tau-tau are commissioned by __ __ __ & every step of carving surrounded by ritual family of deceased
when __ __ tau-tau adorned with finely woven clothing, betel nut bag filled w/silver & bamboo utensils, head dressing, gold jewelry, & sacred knife funeral begins
tau-tau is supposed to __ deceased & it makes their __ __ resemble; soul visible
due to Christian influence tau-tau are now viewed as __ __ of dead person realistic portrait
in Toraja, tourism began process by which __ __ objects have been transformed into __ __ of economic significance ritually significant; art objects
for Toraja, theft of tau-tau is equivalent to __ __, and loss must be readdressed by ritual propitiation ancestor abduction
world music is based on __ musical traditions, produced for __ occasions, in __ languages local; local; local
traditional musicians, in world music, have frequently adopted Western __ & __ instruments; styles
African & New World music have traded ideas from shared foundations in __ & __ call-and-response; polyrhythm
preserved by slaves & adapted into sacred & secular music of New World music of African religious ceremonies
bhangra is music of __ but means different things to different __ identity; communities
bhangra often music of resistance to young, urban __ __ __ British-born South Asians
bhangra lyrics articulated problems of S Asians living in Britain, especially __ & balancing of __ & __ racism; tradition; modernity
elders consider bhangra Western __ of their traditions pollution