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Chapter 12 - ANT2410


social position that a person chooses or achieves on his or her own; examples: wife, college professor, criminal, artists, etc. achieved status
South African system of exclusive racial groups—black, white, colored, & Asian—that were formally recognized, segregated, treated differently in law and life, & occupied different & almost exclusive statuses w/in the society apartheid
social position that a person is born into; incl. race, ethnicity, family of origin, & biological sex ascribed status
view that immigrants should abandon their cultural distinctiveness & become mainstream Americans assimilation
social stratification based on birth/ascribed status in which social mobility between castes is not possible caste system
category of persons who all have about same opportunity to obtain economic resources, power, & prestige & who are ranked relative to other categories class
form of social stratification in which different strata form a continuum & social mobility is possible class system
perspective on social stratification that focuses on economic inequality as source of conflict & change conflict theory
anthropological theory that specific cultural institutions function to support structure of society/serve needs of individuals in society functionalism (functionalist perspective)
opportunities that people have to fulfill their potential in society life chances
view that cultural diversity is a positive value that should be incorporated into national identity & public policy multiculturalism
ability to control resources in one’s own interest; dimension of social stratification power
social honor/respect; dimension of social stratification prestige
culturally constructed category based on perceived physical differences; cultural construction based on specific histories & social structures race
movement from one social strata to another social mobility
social hierarchy resulting from the relatively permanent unequal distribution of goods & services in a society social stratification
accumulation of material resources/access to means of producing these resources; dimension of social stratification wealth
social stratification involves the __ of culturally constructed categories that change over time within specific __ & __ contexts intersection; economic; historical
social stratification is related to social __ and is one of the criteria by which __ are defined complexity; states
basic perspectives on social stratification are functionalism & conflict theory
functionalism holds that social stratification generally benefits the whole society, by __ people socially & economically for working harder rewarding
characteristic of social stratification that does not always serve the general good inequality
social stratification does not necessarily result in recruiting the __ __ people to the __ __ positions most able; most demanding
emphasizes function of inequality in stable social order functionalist perspective
in large-scale social systems __ always seem to accompany substantial inequalities when they are based on __ __ of race, gender, caste, or other attributes an individual is born with resentment; ascribed factors
no society actually offers everyone the __ __ to achieve economic & social success same opportunities
family background/social connections, gender, ethnicity, race, accumulated wealth, & other factors play important roles in determining available opportunities in all stratified societies
attributes much conflict in modern societies (crime, terrorism, ethnic conflict, civil/international wars) to organized & systemic inequality Gerald Berreman
in conflict theory social stratification results from __ __ for scare goods & services constant struggle
in conflict theory, inequalities exist because individuals/groups who have acquired power, wealth, & prestige use their assets/power to __ __ over system of production & __ of the state maintain control; apparatus
when attempts to establish __ falter/are challenged, elites fall back on threat of force or its actual use to maintain the __ __ dominance; status quo
conflict theory if central to work of __ __; argued for primary of economic or class interests Karl Marx
social class who own means of production in capitalist society capitalists
social class who must sell their labor in order to survive in capitalist society workers
according to Marx, relationship of individuals to __ __ __ is critical in determining their wealth, power & prestige means of production
conflict between worker's & owners of means of production & Marx predicted it would be the downfall of this society central to capitalism
who benefits economically cui bono
conflict theorists may sometimes ignore the possibility of __ __ that promote solidarity across class, racial, ethnic, & cast line social mechanisms
social stratification system of any society depends on complex interaction between power, wealth & prestige
anthropologists analyze power by examining its __ & __ deployed to achieve it sources; goals
channels through which power is exercised sources
compare sources/uses of power of American president, prime minister of France, chairman of Communist party of People's Rep. of China, or Ayatollah in Islamic Republic of Iran would be a cross-cultural perspective
wealth is not __ __ of social status, even in capitalist society, although it can translate into high __ __ & power sole criterion; social position
wealth is capable of translating into __ power, which in turn reinforces __ power symbolic; political
may be related to race/ethnicity, income, accumulated wealth, power, personal characteristics, & display of material goods cultural basis of prestige
not all wealth is a source of prestige
key source of prestige in all societies is occupation
occupations are ranked according to their level of spiritual purity/pollution Hindu caste system
dirty jobs are generally on prestigious jobs in America
as __ condition change, value system that supports a particular system of __ __ prestige may change socioeconomic; ranking occupations
surgery was performed by barbers & was lower-class occupation 18th-century Europe
prestige/power associated w/different occupations has almost reversed from traditional society People's Republic of China
before Communist Revolution, China followed a __ __ __ in which scholars had highest honor Confucian value system
after Communist Revolution, Chinese workers were __ & scholars often explicitly __ or __ honored; ridiculed; despised
have long debated whether prestige/economic factors are more important in explaining behavior of people in complex, stratified societies social scientists
German sociologist of late 19th century; argues for importance of status rather than economic interests Max Weber
Marx thought that people were or should be most conscious of their __ __ class membership
Weber believed that people may value prestige & __ __ __ __ even more than their economic position symbolic aspects of status
Weber argued that political action can be motivated by a group's desire to __ __ __ __ as well as, or in opposition to its economic self-interest defend its social position
political action can be motivated by a group's desire to defend its social position as well as, or in opposition to its economic self-interest Marx termed false consciousness
poor whites did not join poor blacks in working to improve their common economic position because they were more committed to maintaining prestige value based on color/race American South
when comparing social stratification systems, anthropologists differentiate between systems where social position is based on ascribed or achieved status
social position primarily based on achievement open stratification system
social position based on ascription closed stratification system
in most modern societies __ & __ play role in social stratification system achievement; ascription
class is category of persons who all have about the same opportunity to obtain economic resources, power & prestige & are ranked __ in relation to other class categories high-low
in class system, possibilities for social mobility are based on __ achievement rather than __ status individual; ascribed
even in most open class system __ __ always play role in moving from one class to another ascribed statuses
closed stratification systems, in which there is __ __ __ possibility of social mobility are called caste systems little or no
social mobility is a __ __ __ & theoretically possible for all society's members central cultural value
opportunity for upward social mobility in US American Dream
social science evidence demonstrates that educational achievement, levels of indebtedness, income, & wealth accumulation are significantly correlated w/race, ethnicity & gender as well as individual's class status
very significant in achievements of higher education class-based difference
American Dream is closely ties to other core __ __ such as individualism, meritocracy, work ethic, optimism, pragmatism, progress, & belief in ability of individuals to control circumstances of their lives American values
economic failure/downward social mobility largely viewed as result of individual failings as well as behaviors, attitudes, & culture of member of lower class, rather than systemic part of social structure corollary of American Dream
prescient in revealing significance & meaning of downward mobility in American class system Katherine Newman
Newman defines as those who had secure jobs. comfortable homes, & reason to believe that future would be one of continued prosperity for themselves & their children downwardly mobile middle-class people
Newman noted that downward mobility was almost __ __ in US institutionally invisible
Newman observes that downward mobility is a __ __ of American society's experience because it does not fit into our cultural universe hidden dimension
Newman emphasizes that __ __ entails not only economic decline but also decline is prestige job loss
cultural emphasis on __ central to American Dream also represses important role of government programs & policies individualism
GI bill, Social Security, unemployment insurance, progressive income tax, & federal mortgage assistance program are examples of important role of government programs & policies that resulted in growing middle class since WWII
1930s-1970s social mobility was based on cultural vision that held government should provide a safety net & enable upward mobility for all Americans
1980s government should be kept small, its spending restricted, & success depended on individual achievement free of government help or interference new American culture ideology
is gateway to a middle-class lifestyle & serves basis for family economic security in American society income
have tremendous impact on people’s lives; they are correlated w/health, quality health care in illness, & life span in American society income & accumulated wealth
essential gateway to increasing life chances & social mobility; basis of decent standard of living incl. access to food, clothing, shelter, health care, quality education, & accumulation of some resources or equity as safety net for emergencies sufficient & steady family income
negatively affects not only one's own life chances but also those of one's children insufficient & irregular income
social mobility is a life chance that depends on __ one already is in class system where
people born into wealth, high status, & power use these resources to __ their high class positions & often have means to keep others from achieving __ __ maintain; upward mobility
have better chance of maintaining their position over generations rich & powerful people
tend to share similar life experiences, occupational roles, values, educational backgrounds, affiliation, & political views members of a social class
not merely income, but how that income is spent is an important dimension of class status
even when income & wealth inequalities rose over past 30 years, __ __ seemed to grow more similar consumer-related lifestyles
expressed in personal services & exclusive experiences class differences
high standard of __ __ clouds importance of American class divisions compared to rest of world material comfort
most important American lifestyle difference related to income is ability of wealthy to buy homes in residential areas __ to those with great deal of money restricted
class status is still very significant in __ structure & __ achievements in America family; educational
in America more likely to married before having children, have fewer children, & have children later in life upper classes
Newman notes, __ __ are among most important factors determining whether those in category near poor can make it into middle class family circumstances
household incomes between $20,000 & $40,000/year for family of four near poor
cultural & __ __ of social class reinforce one another interactional dimensions
through interaction based on common residence & schooling, religious participation, voluntary associations, & other social institutions people learn __ of their social class in America lifestyle
lifestyle is important part of sociability, informal/intimate social relationships, explains why social classes tend to be largely endogamous
Chinese, Indian, & Malay are primary ethnic group in Malaysia
small populations descended from 16th-century traders who politically dominated Malay society for 100 years Portuguese
defeated Portuguese, colonized Malaysia, & replaced Portuguese in most important political & economic positions British
when British left, they moved into many commercial & professional positions, now dominating Malaysian economy Chinese
race is not a __ __ but one constructed by humans in specific cultural & historical context natural category
race is used to justify __ treatment & __, affecting lives of both racial majority & minorities differential; discrimination
described Irish as human chimpanzees, race of utter savages, truly barbarous & brutish Charles Kingsley
differing from British by class/religion, used by British to justify their control over Ireland degenerate Irish race
as Irish migrated to US notion of their cultural & biological __ was commonly expressed in language of race inferiority
concept of race applied to Burakumin in Japan
stigmatized/oppressed group perceived by Japanese as innately physically & morally distinct from other Japanese, although there in fact no physical differences between them Burakumin
Burakumin are __ __ distinguished by differences in family name, occupation, & placed of residence invisible race
in many systems of __ __, where physical differences do not define groups, ethnicity, class, caste, or other social distinctions are symbolized in biological/racial terms inherited stratification
differences in inherited stratification systems are associated w/traits of culture, character, morality, intelligence, personality, & purity that are seen as natural, inherited, & unaltered
lack of observable physical differences does not prohibit invention of __ __ or emergence of __ __ racial categories; racial stratification
occur in societies w/different culturally constructed views of race racial stratification
race is viewed as continuum in Brazil
in US, race is largely defined as a __ __ between black & white binary opposition
multiple exclusive racial classifications were formally recognized, treated differently in law/life, & occupied different & almost exclusive statuses within society S Africa
in US race is culturally constructed largely on basis of __ __ __ such as skin color, hair texture, & presumed ancestry few observable characteristics
historically N American system of racial stratification primarily divides people into black & white
reality ignored by American dichotomy of racial stratification is that __ __ actually forms a continuum skin color
reality ignored by American dichotomy of racial stratification is that widespread __ __ occurred historically & continues in present racial mixing
2000 US census permitted people to identify as __ __ __ race; 7 million people, almost 1/2 whom were under 18, chose to do so more than one
some scholars suggest may be converging in racial formations US & Brazil
undermines American binary race project multiraciality
some scholars hope for __ American society, rather than __ one similar to Brazil post-racial; hyper-racial
constructed nature revealed in antebellum Southern court decisions, for purpose of school segregation American binary of race
binary of race classifies Chinese as white
binary of race classifies individuals w/at least 1/32nd "negro blood" as __, even if their skin color was indistinguishable from __ back; whites
ironic comment on American construction of race, once told American reporter that 96% of Haitians were white using same procedure for counting whites "a drop of white blood" that Americans used for counting blacks Haitian dictator Papa Doc Duvalier
for white in America ordinary experiences such as shopping, buying/renting place to live, finding hairdresser, do not generally involve __ on their racial identity reflection
binary form of American racial classification grew out of __ __ of slavery historical conditions
racial stereotypes used to justify slavery & later segregation in America, were supported by emerging __ & __ __ biological; social sciences
biological & social sciences in America, legitimized races as __ __ natural categories characterized by physical cultural, intellectual, & moral differences hierarchically arranged
social class, race & ethnicity interact in complex ways to produce the __ __ __ system of US particular social stratification
race is __ as scientific concept, but as __ __ is centrally implicated in American social stratification system misguided; social fact
where race intersects with class impacts __ __ of life & __ of life itself in American system every aspect; potential
black male infant born in US today will life 7 years __ than white male infant less
racial -- are also revealed in access to healthcare & healthcare outcomes disparities
30% of African Americans, Latinos, & members of other minority groups are uninsured, compared to 17% of whites in New York City
people covered by Medicare are more treated differently by health care institutions; more likely to be seen by rotating med students/interns, thus less likely to receive coordinated medical care
race & racism are highly correlated with industrial pollution
race compounded by class also affects traumas caused & experienced by environmental disasters
although African American & Latinos comprise only 25% of US population they are more than 60% of those in prison
convicted rates 10-35 time higher than white women in US prisons black women
accumulated wealth only 14.6% & 13.2% of the $140,700 median new worth for white families African American & Latino
is only one among many social institutions that reflect stratifies nature of class, race, ethnicity, & indigenous status in US educational achievement
argued for importance of culture; believed voluntary minorities are higher educational achievers than involuntary minorities John Ogbu
those who came to US voluntarily in order to better their lives voluntary minorities
include Native Americans, African Americans brought as slaves, & Mexican-Americans incorporated through military policies of expansion involuntary minorities
present US population consists substantially of voluntary migrants & it is unclear how/if this has affected their educational achievement Mexican-Americans
Ogbu wrote, voluntary minorities believe in possibilities for social mobility & thus emphasize education as route to getting ahead
Ogbu wrote, involuntary minorities view social hierarchy of US as unfair, permanent, & systematically__; less likely to believe that educational achievement will lead to success in life discriminatory
students from involuntary minorities cope w/subordinated social status by creating a 2ndary culture in which peer group values of cool behavior are more important than academic achievement; characteristic of inner-city Latino & African-American ghettos oppositional culture
oppositional culture makes __ __ likely academic failure
study of E Harlem; school itself is significant place for learning oppositional culture, including necessary skills for surviving on streets of inner cities all of which undermine effective learning
anthropologists emphasize that negative effects of inner city oppositional culture have their course in __ of inner-city neighborhoods poverty
anthropologists emphasize that negative effects of inner city oppositional culture have their course in discriminatory __ __ such as low expectations of minority student educational policies
anthropologists emphasize that negative effects of inner city oppositional culture have their course in __ & __ schools overcrowded; underfunded
anthropologists emphasize that negative effects of inner city oppositional culture have their course in __ teachers less-qualified
much social science research shows that most inner-city residents support mainstream __ __ & behaviors, especially educational achievement cultural norms
where oppositional cultural model puts burden on inner-city student to change their culture, model's critics emphasize education achievement among minorities depends upon fairer distribution of __ resources
where oppositional cultural model puts burden on inner-city student to change their culture, model's critics emphasize education achievement among minorities depends upon more __ educational policies equitable
where oppositional cultural model puts burden on inner-city student to change their culture, model's critics emphasize education achievement among minorities depends upon transformation of schools into safer, more __ environments disciplined
Brazil has __ __ whose core labor force consisted of African slaves plantation economy
policy in Brazil of encourage immigration of Europeans whitening
after slavery was abolished in Brazil, they did not translate racial distinctions into __ & interracial marriage & sexual relations were not __ law; illegal
laws in US affected marriages of white w/African Americans, Japanese, Filipinos, & Native Americans as central ideological tool for constituting & reproducing white supremacy
individuals of African descent account for 45% of Brazil's population
15% of Brazil's population identify as __ on census form preta (black)
the remainder of Brazil's population identify as __ on census form parda
parda in Brazil signifies brown, of __ African ancestry partial
__ in Brazil is tied to social stratification self-identification
Brazilian understanding of race is __, but distribution of wealth & services in profoundly unequal & __ flexible; racial
intermediate category between black & white mulatto
light mulatto mulatto claro
person w/reddish skin & light curly hair sarara
promoted idea that Brazilian national identity resulted from mixing people of European, African, & indigenous ancestry; influence gave race mixing positive connotation Gilberto Freyre
Freyre's work used to promote notion among politicians, academics, & in culture at large that Brazil was a racial democracy
measure national quality of life UN Human Development Index (HDI)
in Brazil __ __ between whites & nonwhites are much greater than in US educational disparities
Brazil has higher rate of __ than the US illiteracy
Brazilian __ __ is almost entirely domain of the province of white elites higher education
argues ethnicity has important cultural content, must be viewed as aspect of relationships among groups in society which may be competitive, conflictual, cooperative, or combination Fredrick Barth
Barth's approach led anthropologists to ask new questions about how ethnicity works as a vehicle for association, collective action, & personal identity
Barth's approach led anthropologists to ask new questions about how ethnic groups & identities __, __ & __ in response to economic & social environments emerge; change; disappear
narrative of America as a nation of immigrants to pursue freedom from fear & vision of American dream taking place simultaneously with ongoing project of creating American national identity
early idealistic vision of America as land of opportunity, upward mobility, & political freedom were largely restricted to immigrants from northern & western Europe (Nordic)
American Constitution limited __ to those who were free & white citizenship
1880-1920s immigrants from S & E Europe (Greeks & Poles) were racially distinguished from Nordic races
1920s restrictive immigration laws effectively limited immigration to Nordic groups viewed as culturally, physically, & politically similar to members of groups who __ __ in US held power
until mid-20th-century __ __ __ regarding immigrants was assimilation dominant American ideology
settlement houses, public schools, & citizenship classes were formed to teach immigrants __ __ & motivate them to assimilate American ways
referred primarily to ethnic groups descended from European populations melting pot
melting excluded __ __ minorities-Mexican, African/Native American-as well as small numbers of Asians/Middle East racially defined
was also imposed on Native Americans; largely failed to persuade to adopt mainstream culture, but did result in loss of culture & lead, & increase in social problems such as alcoholism & poverty policy of assimilation
intended to permanently alienated Native American children from their cultures & languages American boarding schools
headed Bureau of Indian Affairs, government policies reversed to support strengthening of Indian cultures & societies John Collier
1965, explicitly aimed at reversing discriminatory basis of earlier immigration laws Nationality Act
Nationality Act greatly expanded number of people permitted to immigrate from __ __ against nations previously discriminated
Nationality Act abolished __ __ immigration quotas
Nationality Act gave __ __ to social goal of family unification high priority
Nationality Act put refugee immigration on a more __ basis structured
rise of international terrorism, cyclical nature of global/national/regional economies, increase of illegal immigration, & transnationalism changing contexts of immigration
1965 immigration laws opened up US to skilled, highly trained __ immigrants from S Asia as well as Middle East Muslim
largest group of Latinos are first-generation immigrants
as of 2002 Mexicans accounted for 20% of total __ __ to US legal immigration
castes are hereditary & __ endogamous
caste are ranked in relation to one another & characteristically associated with __ __ traditional occupations
caste system consists of ranked, culturally distinct, interdependent, endogamous group with rigidly maintained __ between castes boundaries
blacksmiths, praise-singers, & leather workers function as endogamous castes W Africa
peasants & nobility were endogamous castes traditional European society
before 1950 era of expanding civil right, black/white relations in American south also __ __ of cast system incorporated elements
caste system deeply & historically embedded in culture & plays central role in social stratification India
__ __ of Indian caste system are its complexity, relation to Hindu religious beliefs & rituals, & degree to which castes are cohesive & self-regulating groups unique elements
Hindu caste system contains four main categories called varna
highest ranked varna; priests & scholars Brahmins
2nd highest ranked varna; ruling & warrior cast Kshatriyas
3rd ranked varna; merchants Viasyas
4th ranked varna; menial workers & artisans Shudras
5th group below 4 varnas; previously called untouchables; perform spiritually polluting work such as cleaning latrines or tanning leather Dalits
Dalits are considered so ritually __ that their mere touch, or even shadow, __ purity of higher castes impure; contaminates
birth into Hindu caste is considered __ or __ for actions in previous life reward; punishment
in Indian villages the lowest castes are __ & __ segregated, prohibited from using high caste wells & temples spatially; socially
previously untouchable class of leather workers/shoemakers who became fairly wealthy due to increased domestic/global demand for leather shoes Camars of Agra
when initial attempt to raise their caste failed in Hindu caste system Camars converted to __ which put them outside the Hindu cast system Buddhism
in rural/urban India caste ranking appears to be less sharply defined as before, at least within __ __ categories higher caste
significant change in caste system in India is weakening in __ __ between caste & occupation traditional connection
significant change in public discourse about Hindu castes is that they are now commonly referred to in public as __ __ or __ cultural communities; associations
Hindu castes were previously called jatis which literally means species
in public strict maintenance of Hindu cast boundaries such as __ , has weakened particularly in cities inter-dining
in private/rural areas many Hindu caste-related boundaries remain particularly regarding __ marriages arranged
__ __ in education & employment, based on (low) caste status incorporated into Indian Constitution, keeps caste alive for more pragmatic reasons affirmative action
even w/rise of new Indian class system, cast remains __ __ __ in Indian society & is unlikely to disappear in near future important structural element
India's __ & __ systems are changing under impact of global economy caste; class
heavily subsidized farms in US/Europe has depressed international prices for agricultural products affecting million of __ __ in India cotton farmers
since India's government does not provide much social support & financial aid for farmers they are forced to rely on informal sector moneylenders
race is recent human invention, race is about culture not biology, & race/racism continue to be embedded in American culture, social institutions, & everyday life are three main message of RACE project
in US race is closely linked to __ economy plantation
ethnography of Southern community documents vulnerability of African Americans to industrial pollution & ways in which community response shaped by racial stratification Melissa Checker
social stratification is the result of __ distribution of resources unequal
conflict theory holds that the natural condition of society is conflict & change
according to the text, the recession of 2008-2009 showed that __ __ of our economic system outweigh individual factors in explaining failure & inequality systemic aspects
in a caste system, the basic relationship between castes is interdependence
debt accumulation is an example of manner in which class, race, and ethnicity __ in the US intersect
most foreign-born American Muslims __ in the American Dream believe