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Neuroscience Ch7

rostral nose/front
caudal tail/back
dorsal up
ventral down
medial to lateral moving away from midline
midsagital/sagital cut brain along corpus callosum, or parallel to this
coronal plane cut brain perpendicular to ground and corpus callosum
cerebrum front most and largest part of brain. big, folded, and basically what you think of when you think "brain"
cerebellum "little brain." behind cerebrum. as many neurons as cerebrum. primarily a movement control center. controls ipsilaterally. divided in middle by "vermis"
brain stem relays info from cerebrum to spinal cord and cerebellum, and vice versa. regulates vital fxns: breathing, consciousness, body temp. primitive and essential.
dorsal root info into spinal cord to brain. the somatic sensory axons enter spinal cord via these roots, their somata collecting outside the spinal cord in clusters called "dorsal root ganglia"
ventral root info from brain to spinal cord to rest of body branches from these spinal nerves
somatic PNS voluntary system of the peripheral nervous system
visceral/autonomic nervous system involuntary system of the PNS
afferent "carry to"
efferent "carry from"
meninges layers btwn brain & skull. 1) dura mater- tough, fibrous, outer 2)arachnoid membrane- spider weby. should be no space between this and dura, unless you have a subdural hematoma, and fills w/blood 3)pia mater- separated from arach by cerebrospinal flui
ventricular system fluid filled caverns that run through the brain are filled with CSF, which is produced by "choroid plexus". CSF absorbed by blood vessels at "arachnoid villi".
cortex any collection of neurons that form a thin sheet, usually at brain surface
nucleus/substantia cluster/group of neurons in the brain (substantia are less well delineated)
ganglion/ia a collection of neurons in PNS. exception: basal ganglia in the CNS (controls movement)
lemniscus a tract of neurons which meanders though the brain like a ribbon.
commissure any collection of neurons that connect one side of brain with another
forebrain prosencephalon. in development, differentiates into the telencephalon, the two cerebral vessels. in mature adult, forebrain is the seat of the "rational animal" (heh), specifically cerebral cortex
midbrain mesencephalon. "tectum" is its roof, which divides into superior and inferior colliculus. SC aka "optic tectum," receives eye input and controls its movement. IC gets ear input. tegmentum is bottom. colorful. in between is cerebral aqueduct, filled w/ CSF
hindbrain rhombencephalon. front to back: cerebellum, pons, medulla oblongata.
thalamus develops from the diencephalon. sensory relay hq, except for smell. connected to white matter by large collxion of axons called "internal capsule".
hypothalamus below the thalamus. controls autonomic NS. also: food drink sex motivation. food preference
corticospinal or pyramidal tract collection of axons that travel between the cerebral cortex of the brain and the spinal cord. mostly contains motor axons. consists of two separate tracts in the spinal cord: the lateral corticospinal tract and the anterior corticospinal tract.
decussation a crossing of axons from one side of brain to other.
sulci brain grooves
gyri brain bumps
mamillary bodies nuclei of the hypothalamus, part of the circuitry that stores memory. receive info from fornix. see slide
pineal body right above the sup and inf colliculus, at the top of the brainstem. secretes melatonin
cerebellar peduncles bundle of axons which connect cerebellum and brain steam
basal ganglia the caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus pallidus. these collxions of neurons are important part of movement system. located basal forebrain (slice 1&2).
precentral gyrus motor homunculus
postcentral gyrus sensation homunculus
cingulate gyrus/cortex receives inputs from thalamus and neocortex, and projects to the entorhinal cortex. integral part of the limbic system: emotion formation and processing, learning, and memory, and is also important for executive function and respiratory control.
Entorhinal cortex functions as the hub in a widespread network for memory and navigation. The EC is the main interface between the hippocampus and neocortex.
vpm nucleus ventral posterior medial nucles, a portion of the thalamus that deals w/sensory info from the head
Created by: jwdink