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Chapter 11 - ANT2410

Political Organization

lacking a government head/chief acephalous
specialized associations based on age which stratify a society by seniority age grades
group of people of similar age & sex who move through some/all of life’s stages together age set
ability to cause others to act based on characteristics such as honor, status, knowledge, ability, lineage, respect/holding of formal public office authority
small group of people related by blood/marriage, who live together & are loosely associated w/territory in which they forage; nuclear family band
self-made leader who gains power through personal achievements rather than through political office bigman
society w/social ranking in which political integration is achieved through office of centralized leadership called the chief; typical political organization of rank society chiefdom
membership in a state citizenship
society in which no individual/group has more privileged access to resources, power/prestige than any other egalitarian society
perceived cultural attributes by which ethnic groups distinguish themselves from others ethnic boundaries
categories of people who see themselves as sharing ethnic identity that differentiates them from other groups/larger society ethnic groups
perceived differences in culture, national origin, & historical experience by which groups of people are distinguished from others in same social environment ethnicity
informal alliances within well-defined political units such as lineages, villages/organizations factions
deliberate & systematic extermination of a national, racial, political/cultural (ethnic) group genocide
interrelated set of status roles that become separate from other aspects of social organization, such as kinship, in exercising control over a population government
dominance of political elite based on close identification between their own goals & those of larger society hegemony
groups of people who have occupied region for long time & recognized by other groups as its original/very ancient inhabitants indigenous peoples
indigenous peoples are often __ with little influence in the government of __ that controls their land minorities; nation-state
__ societies designated as bands, tribes/chiefdoms that occupied their land prior to __ contact small-scale; European
means of social control & dispute management through systematic application of force by politically constituted authority law
ability to direct an enterprise/action leadership
form of managing disputes that uses offices of 3rd party to achieve voluntary agreement between disputing parties mediation
sovereign, geographically based state that identifies itself as having distinctive national culture & historical experience nation-state
shared beliefs & values that legitimize distribution & use of power in particular society political ideology
patterned ways in which power is legitimately used in society to regulate behavior political organization
ways in which individuals & groups use power to achieve public goals political process
ability to control resources in one’s own interest & to cause individuals/groups to take actions that they may prefer not to take on their own accord power
society characterized by institutionalized differences in prestige but no important restrictions on access to basic resources rank society
attempt of group within society to force redistribution of resources & power; reallocate resources within existing political structure rebellion
people who have been uprooted from native lands & forced to cross national boundaries refugees
attempt to overthrow existing form of political organization & put another type of political structure in its place revolution
W African societies whose membership & rituals are known only to society members; most significant function is the initiation of boys & girls into adulthood secret societies
form of sociopolitical organization in which multiple descent groups (usually patrilineages) form at different levels & function in different contexts segmentary lineage system
number of groups & their interrelationships in a society social complexity
relative access individuals & groups have to basic material resources, wealth, power, & prestige social differentiation
hierarchical, centralized form of political organization in which central government has legal monopoly over use of force; typical political organization of stratified society state
society characterized by formal, permanent social & economic inequality in which some people are denied access to basic resources stratified society
culturally distinct population whose members consider themselves descended from same ancestor tribe
primary producers are allowed access to means of production, & tribute is exacted from them by coercion tributary mode of exchange
formally organized & culturally recognized pattern of collective violence directed toward other societies/between segments within larger society war
all societies must address how to maintain themselves over time w/minimum __ __ & __ __ social disorder; social discontent
every society must provide means of managing __, __, & __ conflicts; descent; deviance
every society must provide means of generally __ behavior so that it is __ with social order regulating; consistent
related to ways in which society produces & distributes valued goods specific type of political organization
social differentiation is related to social __ complexity
political organization, social differentiation, & social complexity are often studied separately, but in reality they are __ __ intimately connected
egalitarian, rank, & stratified societies are systems of social differentiation
in egalitarian society age & sex/gender differences are basis for __ __ social respect
in egalitarian society age & sex/gender differences are not basis for differences in __ __ __ accumulation of wealth
in egalitarian society there is no __ of prestige or material goods inheritance
in egalitarian society has no __ __ of social positions, filled by as __ __ as fit cultural criteria fixed number; many people
egalitarian societies usually operate on principle of __ or __ __ in exchange of goods & services generalized; balanced reciprocity
egalitarian societies usually associated with forms of political organizations called __ or __ band; tribes
rank societies have formal differences among individuals & groups in __ & __ __, which may be inherited prestige; symbolic resources
slavery status in rank societies was not __ hereditary
rank societies are normally based on highly productive __ or __, which permit sufficient accumulation of food horticulturalism; pastoralism
basis of rank societies permittivity of sufficient accumulation of food allows surplus that can be __ by leaders & __ throughout society appropriated; redistributed
both __ & __ __ are characteristic modes of exchange in rank societies redistribution; balanced reciprocity
social ranking in rank societies is associated with form of political organization called a chiefdom
in stratified societies __, __, & __ are frequently inherited prestige; wealth; office
standard of living, security, prestige, political power, & opportunity to fulfill one's own potential are examples of __ & __ __ of individuals in stratified societies permanent; wide differences
may be based on birth or result from individual accomplishments in stratified societies differences
most stratified societies are economically organized by __ __ & generally based on __ & industrialism market exchange; agriculture
stratified societies are most __ __ kinds of societies & associated w/political organization called __ socially complex; state
power ultimately derives from __ __ __ that people need or desire control of resources
authority is only one important __ __ __ source of power
power of political office holder may derive from afforded __, but also from __ __ that comes from control of resources respect; coercive ability
power can be held by people __ __ authority without any
political ideology is often __ to greater extent by those who __ most from it accepted; benefit
when fewer people in a society have less acceptance of resigning political ideology, society may relay on greater use of __, & perhaps even __ to maintain itself coercion; violence
contribute to maintaining order in almost all societies coercion & consensus
by definition all political behavior affects, but is not always in, the __ __ public interest
political behavior of groups & individuals may be motivated by __ & __ altruism; idealism
in __ __ societies those in power use various means to establish hegemony politically complex
__ __ institutions are sources of power & authority formal political
in many __ __ use of power, authority, decision making, & coordination/regulation of human behavior are not formally separated from other aspects of culture small-scale societies
in many small-scale societies power, authority, decision making, & coordination/regulation of human behavior are embedded in __ __ such as kinship, economics & religion social institutions
in small-scale societies leadership may be based on __ __ as head of family, lineage or clan individual's position
where __ intervention is important aspect of decision making, individuals with perceived __ __ have important political roles in society supernatural; supernatural power
politics involves control over distribution of goods/services, power & authority are embedded in economic roles & modes of exchange chiefs NW Coast of N America & bigmen of Papua New Guinea
politics involves control over distribution of goods/services, power & authority are embedded in economic roles & modes of exchange exists in __ __ also complex societies
in most small-scale societies __ did not hold formal political office women
certain offices reserved to represent women's interests Yoruba of Nigeria
some groups had female ruler & council that parallel that of king & his council but were concerned w/women's affairs Igbo of Nigeria
had women paramount chiefs who were seen as "mothers writ large" Mende in Sierra Leone
derived authority & power from reproductive & supportive roles of women as mothers "mothers writ large"
Mende women's secret society was very powerful, reflecting important economic roles of wives, who were authority figures & might even succeed a chief in office Sande
one of most famous Mende women of power; 19th-century succeeded husband in office & was recognized as paramount chief in 1884 Madam Yoko
women derive power from control over marketing agricultural & other products W Africa
women's power is interwoven w/roles in kinship, ceremonial, & economic systems; matrilineal society Minangkabau & Hopi
emphasizes how power changes hands & how new kinds of political organization & ideologies develop study of political processes
political processes are never __ static
use of power & authority may __ a social order, avoid or resolve __, & promote __ __ stabilize; conflict; general welfare
power & authority may be used to __ prevailing political power & change/destroy __ political systems contest; existing
groups/factions, as well as governments, use __ & __ means to gain their ends; one is no less political than the other legitimate; illegitimate
__ & __ do not necessarily destroy social order conflict; violence
blood feuds or legally sanctioned death penalties are examples if violence as __ __ of dealing w/conflict & solving disputes legitimate means
conflict may even support social order, as competition for __ __ makes them seem worth fighting for legitimate goals
violent conflict for political office emphasizes that the __ __ view office as politically important conflicting groups
for society to function satisfactorily there must be some __ among its members conformity
societies organized through kinship & face-to-face social relations conformity is largely achieved through ___ of it norms & values internalization
in complex societies internalization of norms regulates in addition to behavior through government control of social institutions with regulatory process & capability & willingness to __ __ use force
every society has some __ __ to deal w/non-normative behavior & conflict social mechanism
face-to-face & informal groups w/in complex societies, informal mechanisms such as __ & __ can be effective ways to ensure conformity gossip; ridicule
fear of __ __ is an informal control mechanism witchcraft accusations
in societies w/witchcraft beliefs, accusations are directed at those who stand __ group, are __, have nasty temper, or refuse to __ according to group norms above; malicious; share
fear of being accused of witchcraft exerts __ on people to conform pressure
small-scale communities use __ to sanction social deviants avoidance
in small-scale communities a person __ by others is at great psychological & economic disadvantage shunned
complex societies avoidance is effective in __ groups within __ institutions smaller; larger
supernatural sanctions regulate __ __ in almost all societies human behavior
violation of a social norm that calls forth punishment by supernatural forces sin
incest is sin; brings divinely imposed skin affliction cause by insect spontaneously generated by sexual act that breaches incest taboo Trobriand Islands
law refers to situation where __ __, or some part, is __ to punish an offender against a society's most important norms whole community; authorized
in complex societies functions of law belong to __ __ institutions separate legal
law distinguished from more general reciprocal __ & __ that underlie conformity in all societies rights; obligations
law addresses conflict that would otherwise disrupt __ __ community life
politically complex societies, such as contemporary nation-states, law address both __ against state & __ between individuals crimes; conflicts
structurally simple societies disputes between individuals treated as __ __ to society because they have ripple effects throughout community potential threats
conflict management is egalitarian society more often directed at maintaining existing __ __ than defining __ &__ __ social relationships; winners; losers
bands, tribes, chiefdoms, & states are four ideal types of political organization
typical political organization of egalitarian society bands & tribes
characteristic of foragers band organization
generalized/balanced reciprocity dominates __ __ in band society economic exchange
bands are fairly independent of one another w/few higher levels of __ __ or __ __ of leadership social integration; centralized mechanisms
band society has minimal role __ & few __ of wealth, prestige, or power specialization; differences
bands tend to be __ w/ties between then mainly established by __ exogamous; marriage
__ __ systems link individuals to many different bands through ties of blood & marriage bilateral kinship
__ relations also link individuals to other band members trading
flexible & people may change residence from one band to another fairly easily membership in bands
flexibility of band organization is particularly __ for foraging way of life & low __ __ adaptive; population density
band society has no __ __, decision making is by __ formal leadership; consensus
usually older mean/women who experience, traditional knowledge, & special skills/success in foraging are source of prestige foraging band leaders
foraging band leaders can only __ & __ others to their leadership on basis of past performance persuade; attract
local leader is called "The One Whom All Listen", "He Who Thinks" or "He Who Knows Everything Best" local Inuit leaders
__ & __ important values & course of respect in foraging bands sharing; generosity
successful Inuit whaling captains who do not generously distribute their accumulated wealth are merely called rich men
Inuit rich men are distinguished from those whose superior ability & __ make them __ leader of village generosity; respected
social order in band society is maintained informally through __, __, & __ gossip; ridicule; avoidance
in extreme cases of social order in band society a person may be __ or __ __ of community killed; driven out
supernatural sanctions important means of social control Inuit
violations of norms, w/in Inuit bands, are considered __ & offenders may be controlled through __ __ sins; ritual means
Intuit ritual means of social control are __ __ which are directed at a shaman public confessions
Inuit offenders are called __ & led to __ all taboo violated patients; confess
romanticized view of band society as nonviolent based on confusion between __ & __ violence collective; personal
do not engage in collective violence but men frequently fight & these often result in death Ju/'hoansi
social mechanism of band societies that minimize conflict flexible band membership
process called flux operates; separates people in conflict preventing prolonged hostility Mbuti
bands regularly break up into smaller units & reform into larger ones throughout year flux
weapons are words; each contestants tries to deliver traditional compositions w/greatest skill; one for who audience claps loudest is winner song duels
Inuit band disputes are sometimes resolved through __ __ that involve physical action public contests
in Inuit bands murder is resolved by killing the murder
winning song duel is not based on __ of the conflict facts
judgment of community is accepted by song duel contestants & original complaint is laid to rest
because of low level of technology, lack of formal leadership, & other ecological factors __ __ __ in most band societies warfare is absent
when band societies encounter technologically & culturally dominant groups bands tend to __ & __ themselves in marginal areas rather than fight retreat; isolate
defined as formally organized & culturally recognized patterns of collective violence against another society, or between segments with larger society warfare
documenting societies were warfare is absent serves as __ that warfare is in our genes counterexample
tribes are primarily found among __ & __ pastoralists; horticulturalists
tribe's characteristic economic institutions are __ & __ although larger states may participate in __ __ reciprocity; redistribution; market systems
tribes are basically egalitarian w/no important differences among members in __, __, & __ wealth; status; power
tribes do have __ or __ political institutions or roles distinct; centralized
in tribes __ & __ __ embedded in kinship, religion, or other cultural institutions power; social control
tribes usually organized into __ kin groups which are units of political __ & __ of basic economic resources unilineal; activity; owners
consistent w/larger populations of horticultural/pastoral societies is emergence of __ __ groups larger than __ __ local kin; nuclear family
effective political unit in tribal society is __; most of time local units of tribe operate __ shifting; independently
local units may be in state of ongoing violent conflict among themselves Yanomamo
__ __ among trial segments most often occurs in response to threat of attach from another society or opportunity to attach another society higher-level unity
__ __ of tribal society may be integrated in various ways, such as age & sex as basis of __ __ who move through life's stages together local segments; organized groups
cross-cultural comparison of societies in which age is important basis of organization suggest that they are associated w/frequent __ & __ __ __ warfare; unstable local groups
age sets provide more dependable source of __ when men cannot rely on kin as allies in warfare allies
males follow well-ordered progression through series of age grades; entry into each requires formalized rite of passage; new age grade opened to group of boys every 14 years Maasai
Maasai boys are initiated into __ __ after childhood, & last about 15 years warrior stage
period of training in social, political, & military skills, & traditionally geared to warfare & cattle raiding Maasai warriorhood
Maasai warriors graduate to less active status, during which they can marry
20 years after formation of age grade, when another grade becomes established, original grade retires to __ in another great ceremony of Maasai elderhood
Maasai __ are cohesive group providing reciprocal hospitality when visiting each other’s villages, expressing warm & intimate relationships age-mates
periodically bring together different sections of Maasai tribes, renewing shared identity & sense of unity & cooperation, confirming system of leadership under age grade spokesperson age grade ceremonies
military societies among some Plains Indian tribes, secrete societies found in W Africa, & segmentary lineage system of Nuer are associations that cut across & integrate local segments of tribes
many had different kinds of leaders for different activities Native American societies
had war leaders & peace leaders Cheyenne
had different leaders for war, hunting ceremonies, & clans Ojibwa
misinterpreted Ojibwa political system & imposed Western concept of supreme leader/chief Europeans
when Canadian government insisted Ojibwa must have chief they coined native word okimakkan which translated as fake chief
bigman is tribal leader found throughout Melanesia & Papua New Guinea
by giving generously a bigman places many others under __ to him obligation
bigmen command __ from their followers through personal relationship of gratitude & obligation obedience
bigman depends on personality & constant striving of an individual, it is a __ __ of tribal integration fragile mechanism
bigmen must spur local group on to __ __ because must give __ more than they give him greater production; competitors
under certain ecological & social conditions __ __ __ may emerge in some tribal societies which then develop into __ permanent political leadership; chiefdoms
tribes depend mainly on __ __ for controlling deviant behavior & settling conflicts informal mechanisms
formal social control mechanisms came into play during summer season when Cheyenne bands came together for __ buffalo hunts & __ __ communal; tribal ceremonies
on Cheyenne buffalo hunt __ __ required because an individual hunter could ruin hunt for other by alarming & scattering buffalo strict discipline
function of tribal "police" to get deviant to conform to tribal law in interest of welfare of tribe; operated only during hunt period military associations of Cheyenne
many tribal societies used mediation to resolve conflicts with __ relationships ongoing
mediations resolves disputes so that __ __ between disputants maintained & __ restored to social order social relationship; harmony
conflict between individuals addressed at a moot Kpelle of Liberia
form of mediation which takes place before assembled group of kinsmen & neighbors; reconciliation achieved w/minimum resentment, so conflicts do not continue & disrupt social order moot
kava-drinking circle in Pacific Island Kingdom of Tonga is example of community-oriented mechanism
indigenous alcoholic drink often consumed in ritual contexts throughout Oceania kava
in Tonga, kava is __ __ activity that serves as nonviolent alternative to alcohol-drinking events semi-ritual male
informal social context in which status distinctions are dissolved & men air their grievances & reconcile differences in atmosphere of social camaraderie kava circle
operates through formal courts, is costly & time consuming, & frequently leaves disputants feeling dissatisfied w/outcomes adversarial system
divorce proceedings, minor civil disputes, & conflicts in school, housing projects, neighborhoods, & workplace, as well as international disputes between nations use meditations to resolve
tribal societies have a __ __ of warfare high degree
__ explanation suggests that warfare helps regulate balance between population & resources in tribal societies ecological
warfare is one way for societies to expand when they are experiencing __ __ or have reached __ __ __ to unoccupied lands population increase; limits of expansion
tribal warfare may also be linked to __ & __, which promote male solidarity partilineality; patrilocality
matrilineal society that carried out warfare over long distances Iroquois
grounded in historical, material, cultural, & ecological conditions, & not in any biologically based human instinct for aggression war
sometimes called "fierce people"; well known for high level of personal violence & frequent warfare; violence by men against women, among men in same village, & between villages central to culture Yanomamo of Amazon in Venezuela & Brazil
explains ongoing Yanomamo warfare & violence as way of preserving village autonomy Napoleon Chagnon
high degree of violent conflict of Yanomamo men within villages leads to division of villages into __ __ hostile camps
Yanomamo violence & warfare helps control population, not by causing deaths in battles but indirectly through __ __ female infanticide
notes that extreme Yanomamo violence documented by Chagnon in 1960s was precipitated in 1940s by severe depopulation caused by European disease epidemics, fatal malnutrition, & intensified competition over European goods Brian Ferguson
__ __ must be considered along with other explanations of Yanomamo fierceness historical factors
chiefdom is made up of parts that are __ & __ different from one another structurally; functionally
chiefdoms have been called 1st step in integrating village units within a multicommunity political organization
defines chiefdom as autonomous political unit comprising number of villages/communities under permanent control of paramount chief Robert Caneiro
Caneiro holds that chiefdoms are important human cultural __ because in this type of society villagers 1st surrendered political autonomy to leaders from other villages, creating __ __ of political authority in society invention; second level
chiefdoms vary greatly on __ __ social complexity
had monumental architecture, distinct ceremonial centers, elaborate grave goods reflecting high social status, & larger settlements, or administrative centers, surrounded by smaller villages ancient chiefdoms
each __ __ within chiefdom may also have had its own chief or council geographical unit
chiefdoms are found mainly among __ & __ or __ __ societies where food resources are plentifully available cultivators; pastoralists; few foraging
chiefdoms are organized through kinship & have __ leadership centralized
__ __ inherited & often sustained by religious authority chiefly office
chiefdom kept lengthy __ __ of names & acts of specific chiefs, used to verify claims to rank & chiefly title genealogical records
anthropologists argue that rise of chief related to __ __ of redistribution exchange pattern
in chiefdoms redistribution may occur infrequently in order for chief to maintain control of population by __ or __ coercion; despotism
rights to manage all economic resources were held by individuals although relatives could not be prevented from using them; inheritance passed through line of eldest son only Nootka
office of chief lesser son was ranked lower than that of __ __ & were typically expressed in terms of wealth eldest son
terms of wealth consisted of symbolic wealth which consists of right to use special names, perform certain ceremonial functions, sponsor potlatches, & wear certain items of clothing & decoration rank of chief's sons
some of most complex chiefdoms found in Polynesia
society divided into Ari'i, Ra'atira, & Manahune; social rank had economic, political, & religious aspects Tahiti
immediate families of chiefs of most important lineages in larger districts; had most Mana because closest to ancestral gods from which mana comes; anything touched became poison for those below in rank Ari'i
heads of less important lineages & their families; \ Ra'atira
included remainder of population Manahune
spiritual power possessed by all people, but in different degrees depending on rank Mana
separated those with more mana from those w/less & also regulated social relations among the ranks elaborate body of taboos
some Polynesian islands highest chief was kept __ from other people & even used __ __ that one else was allowed to use away; special vocabulary
pastoral nomads; stick to migration schedules & fixed routes to avoid exhaustive grazing of area, famine of flocks, & intertribal fighting Basseri
important role of chief for Basseri is to __ __ of tribe & __ __ w/outsiders through territories they must move coordinate movements; conduct relations
internal violence within chiefdoms is lower than in tribes because chief has authority to make __, __ __ individuals, & __ disputes judgments; punish deviant; resolve
stability of Basseri rests on mainly decisions __ __ __ consensus backed up by
Trobriand islands power of chief to punish people is achieved partly by hiring __ to kill offenders by magic sorcerers
greatest power of Trobriand chief lies in control of __ __ garden magic
ultimate power of Trobriand island chief is his magical control of __, used when chief is angry as means of collective punishment & enforcement of his will rain
social order in chiefdoms is maintained through __ & __ __ for & loyalty to the chief fear; genuine respect
kinship ties do not extend throughout whole society & does not regulate relations between different social classes state societies
__ of state rests on ties of citizenship which supplant those of blood & marriage for many purposes legitimacy
enables state to expand without splitting, through incorporation of variety of political units, classes, & ethnic groups concept of citizenship
states can become more __, __, & __ than any other kind of political organization populous; heterogeneous; powerful
cannot be explained by any one theory of cause & effect origin of the state
state that emerged out of military triumph Asante
anthropological theories of state formation tend to emphasize __ or __ & __ conflict; integration; functionalism
functionalist theories about state formation emphasize benefits of state __ __ __ to its members
functionalist theories about state formation emphasize its ability to provide stability needed for __ & __ development growth; technological
functionalist theories about state formation emphasize ts ability to provide __ __ __ of its citizens protection of rights
functionalist theories about state formation emphasize ts ability to provide effective mechanisms for __ __ of disputes peaceful settlement
functionalist theories about state formation emphasize ts ability to provide protection of __ & __ arrangements trade; financial
functionalist theories about state formation emphasize its ability to __ expand
Conflict theories about state formation emphasize emergence of state as directly connected w/emergence of __ __ that protects power & privileges through __ __ & __ of political ideology elite class; coercive power; management
interrelated set of status roles that become separate from other aspects of social organization centralized government
states are characterized by __ government centralized
in state societies groups based on __ become central & individual belongs through __ territory; citizenship
are territorial units, cities, districts, & so on administrative divisions of states
each unit of state society has its __ government, but not independent of central government own
in state societies, government emerges as social institution specifically concerned w/making & enforcing __ __ & engages in other functions that keep __ __ public policy; society going
state intervenes in __ __ of economic process every aspect
through __ state stimulates agricultural production of households taxation
state can order people to work on roads & buildings, & to serve in armies, thus affecting workforce available for agriculture state controlling labor
states economic, coordinating, & controlling functions require extensive record keeping, giving rise to writing & systems of weights & measures
state uses __ __ __ to make clear how & when it will use force & forbids individuals/groups to use force except under state's authorization code of law
state laws are passed by authorized __ __ & enforced by formal & specialized institutions of __ __ legislative bodies; law enforcement
have authority to impose all kinds of punishments, fines, confiscation of property, imprisonment, & even death courts & police forces
engaging in warfare strengthens power of state & leads to increased __ __ because of greater need to regulate daily life & suppress internal conflict political centralization
in state society coercion replaced __ __ voluntary recruitment
illustrates many typical qualities of early or __ __ __ preindustrial state societies
key factor in rise & maintenance of state societies social stratification
states maintain power by maintaining control over centralized governments & its institutions
states maintain power by establishing hegemony, through identifying interests of elite w/those of society at large through encoding it in culture & law
Asante elite's hegemony in culturally legitimizing connection between wealth & power was essential in maintaining state stability
nation popularly felt by members to be __ __ based on bonds of common descent, language, culture, history, & territory natural entity
all modern nation-states are composed of many __ __ ethnic groups
calls nation-states imagined communities because it takes an act of imagination to weld many disparate groups that make up state into coherent national community Benedict Anderson
one way nation-state construct __ __ is to draw boundaries between spatially defined insider & outsiders national identities
__ __ of past essential in creating national identities common interpretation
n regulating human behavior, law is only one among many forms of social control
tribal society imagines all of its members to be related by kinship
compared with tribal societies, chiefdoms are likely to have lower levels of internal violence
film, Well Founded Fear, made by two anthropologists, is about refugees trying to enter the United States as victims of political and economic persecution in their homelands
all human societies have some __ __ for dealing with people who break the rules normative system
one of by-products of many wars & racial, religious, ethnic, political conflicts, human rights violations, & genocides of 20th-21st centuries has been creation of millions of refugees
since WWII there been approx. 16 million refugees worldwide
in order to be granted __ __ a refugee must prove "well-founded" fear of persecution based on race, religion, nationality, membership in particular social group or political opinion political asylum
any foreigner who finds way into US may apply for __ __ under political asylum refugee protection
officers make decisions to approve/deny applications for political asylum in US Immigration & Naturalization Service (INS)
in film, Well Founded Fear, applicants are claiming asylum from __ __ in China one-child policy
in film, Well Founded Fear, applicants are claiming asylum from rule that women __ __ __ in Algeria must be veiled
in film, Well Founded Fear, applicants are claiming asylum from suppression of __ __ in Romania & Nigeria political dissent
in film, Well Founded Fear, applicants are claiming asylum __ __ __ in former Soviet Union persecution of Jews
in film, Well Founded Fear, shows issues involving refugees fleeing from __ in Haiti & violence
in film, Well Founded Fear, shows W Africa women seeking asylum on their fear of __ __ __ if they remain in their home countries force female mutilation
organization launched by anthropologist in Detroit designed to improve refugees' chance for employment RefugeeWorks
fixed & secure __ __ is essential characteristic of contemporary states geographic border
central concern for all governments is __ of state borders vulnerability
plays important role in economic globalization labor migration
give protection of state borders new political & economic urgency fears of terrorist attacks