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AP II Lab quiz I

define hormone a chemical released by a cell in one part of the body, that sends out messages that affect cells in other parts of the organism
Chemically, hromone sbelong chiefly to two molecular groups, the ___ and the ____. steroids; amino acid-based molecules
what do all hormones have in common? they are bloodborne
Define target organ organs that respond to a particular hormone
If hormones travel in the bloodstream, why don't all tissues respond to all hormones? they have structures which results in certain parts of the molecule being presented to cells
endocrine organ located in the throat; bilobed gland connected by an isthmus thyroid gland
endocrine organ found close to the kidney adrenal gland
endocrine organ that is a mixed gland, located close tot he stomach and small intestine pancreas
endocrine organ paired glands suspended in the scrotum gonads
endocrine organ that rides "horseback" on the thyroid gland parathyroid gland
endocrine organ found in the pelvic cavity of the female, concerned with ova and female hormone production ovaries
endocrine organ found in the upper thorax overlying the heart; large during youth thymus gland
endocrine organ found in the roof of the third ventricle pineal gland
what is the hormone and it's site that programs T lymphocytes? thymosin;thymus
What are the hormones and their site that regulate blood calcium levels? calcitonin,thyroid gland;PTH,parathyroid glands
What are the hormones and their site that release in response to stressors? epinephrine,adrenal medulla;cortisone,adrenal cortex
what are the hormones and their site that drive development of secondary sexual characteristics? estrogens,ovaries;testosterone,testes
what are the hormones and their site that regulate the function of antoher endocrine gland? ACTH,anterior pituitary;TSH,anterior pituitary;FSH,anterior pituitary;LH, anterior pituitary
What is the hormone and it's site that mimics the sympathetic nervous system? T4/T3,thyroid gland
What are the hormones and their site that regulate blood glucose leves; produced by the same "mixed" gland? insulin,pancreas;glucagon,pancreas
What are the hormones and their site that are directly responsible for regulation of the menstrual cycle? estrogens,ovaries;progesterone,ovaries
What are the hormones and their site that maintenance of salt and water balance in the extracellular fluid? aldosterone,adrenal cortex;ADH,posterior pituitary
What are the hormones and their site that directly involve din milk production and ejection? oxytocin,posterior pituitary;prolactin,anterior pituitary
in first activity in lab 1, which rat had the fastest basline metabolic rate? normal rat
In 2nd activity in lab1, what effect did administering thyroxine have on each of the rats? increased metabolic rate on normal rat
in 2nd activity in lab 1, explain why throxine increased metabolic rate. because thyroxine controls the rate of metabolism and cellular oxidation
in 3rd activity in lab 1, was ther a change in the metabolic rate of the thyroidectomized rat with the administration of TSH?explain yes, the metabolic rate increased; because TSH influences growth and acitivity of the thyroid gland
in 3rd activity in lab 1, describe the effect of administering propylthiouracil on each of the rats, and explain. the metabolic rate decreased; because the injection inhabits production of thryroxine
trace a molecule of oxygen from the external nares to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs: external nares-> nasal cavity->inferior, superior, middle nasal conchae
What connects the larynx to the primary bronchi trachea
site of tonsils pharynx
food passageway posterior to the trachea esophagus
covers the glottis during swallowing of food epiglottis
contains the vocal cords larynx
nerve that activates the diapthragm during inspiration phrenic nerve
pleural layer lining the walls of the thorax parietal pleura
site from which oxygen enters the pulmonary blood alveolus
connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx opening of pharyngotympanic tube
opening between the vocal folds glottis
increases air turbulence in the nasal cavity concha
separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity palate
define endocrine****** most common (classical)mode, hormones deleivered to target cells by blood
paracrine hormone released diffuses to its target cells through immediate extracellular space; blood is not directly involved int he delivery
neuroendocrine hormone is produced and released by a neuron, delivered to target cells by blood
autocrine hormone released feeds-back on the cell of origin, again without entering blood circulation
What are the 6 main hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary(adenohypophysis) growth hormone,thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone,luteinizing hormone
What are the effects of the growth hormone? body size, growth of muscle
What are the effects of the thyroid-stimulating hormone? growth and thyroid activity
What are the effects of the adrenocorticotropic hormone? regulates endocrine activity of the adrenal gland
What are the effects of the prolactin? breast development and lactation after childbirth
What are the effects of the follicle-stimulating hormone? gamete production and hormonal activity of the gonads
What are the effects of the luteinizing hormone? gamete production and hormonal acitivty of the gonads
What are the two hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary(neurohypophysis)? antidiuretic hormone(ADH);oxytocin
What are the hormones and their effects of the thyroid gland? thyroid hormone(T4,T3); body metabolism and cellular oxidation
What is the hormone and effect of the parathyroid gland? parathyroid hormone;calcium balance
What are the hormones and effects of the adrenal glands? epinephrine,norepinephrine(flight or flight);aldosterone(water and electrolyte balance);glucocorticoids(increase blood glucose levels);gonadocrticoids(male and female sex hormones)
What are the hormones and effect of the pancreas? insulin and glucagon; regulation of blood sugar
What are the hormones and effects of the gonads? estrogen(secondary sex characteristics of femal body);testerone(male secondary sex characteristics)
What are the hormones and effects of the thymus? thymosin and tymopoietin; help maturation and specialization of T cells (important to immunity)
What is the hormone and effects of the pineal gland? melatonin;biological rhythms, inhibitory effects on the reproductive system in humans
ventilation movement of air into and out of lungs; air moves from area of higher pressure to area of lower pressure; pressure is inversely related to volume
external respiration gas exchange between air in lungs and blood;transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood
internal respiration gas exchange between the blood and tissues
What are the respiratory system functions? gas exchange, regulation of blood pH, voice production, olfaction,protection
gas exchange oxygen enters blood and carbon dioxide leaves
regulation of blood pH altered by changing blood carbon dioxide levels
voice production movement of air past vocal folds makes sound and speech
olfaction smell occurs when airborne molecules drawn into nasal cavity
protection against microorganisms by preventing entry and removing them
What is in the upper tract of the respiratory system? nose, pharynx and associated structures
What is in the lower tract of the respiratory system? larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
What are the functions of the nasal cavity? passageway for air, cleans the air, humidifes(warms air),smell, along w/ paranasal sinuses are resonating chambers for speech
pharynx common opening for digestive and respiratory systems
What are the 3 regions of the pharynx? nasopharynx, oropharynx,laryngopharynx
What are the functions of the larynx? maintain an open passageway for air movement;epiglottis and vestibular folds prevent swallowed material from moving into larynx; vocal folds are primary source of sound production
What is the conducting zone of the tracheobronchial tree? trachea to terminal bronchioles which is ciliated for removal of debris; cartilage holds tube system opena nd smooth muscle controls tube diameter
What is the respiratory zone of the tracheobronchial tree? respiratory bronchioles to alveoli; site for gas exchange
pleural fluid produced by pleural membranes: acts as lubricant; helps hold parietal and visceral pleural membranes
surfactants reduce surface tension by disrupting the cohesive forces between water molecules; results in an increase in lung compliance(how easy it is to inflate the lungs)and a decrease in the force needed to inflate the lungs
Dead space air that does not participate in gas exchange
What are the 2 components of dead space? anatomical and alveolar dead space
anatomical dead space volume of the trachea and bronchi
alveolar dead space volume of any alveoli that is not being perfused with blood
What are the pulmonary capacities inspiratory capacity, functional residual capacity, vital capacity, total lung capacity
inspiratory capacity tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume
functional residual capacity expiratory reserve volume plus the residual volume
vital capacity sum of inspiratory reserve volume, tidal volume, and expiratory reserve volume
total lung capacity sum of inspiratory and expiratory reserve volumes plus the tidal volume and residual volume
minute ventilation total amount of air moved into and out of respiratory system per minute
respiratory rate or frequency number of breaths taken per minute
anatomic dead space part of respiratory system where gas exchange does not take place
alveolar ventilation how much air per minute enters the parts of the repiratory system in which gas exchange takes place
Created by: kueeck