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vis and per arts


allegro fast tempo
bar lines the vertical lines on the staff used to mark off the groupings of beats
beat the underlying pulse present in most music
brasses wind instruments made of metal, including the trumpet, french horn, trombone, and tuba
chamber music one to twenty performers
chord several notes sounded together
clavichord a small predecessor of the piano
clef the symbol indicating the pitch of the notes
consonance the combination of tones that produces a quality of relaxation
dissonance the combination of tones that produces a quality of tension
dynamics the loudness of music
fugue based upon a short theme called a subject. It contains both rhythmic and melodic motifs. The opening is announced by one voice alone. A second voice then restates the subject, usually on a different scale.
harmony refers to the chordal aspect of music
harpsichord another predecessor of the piano, sounded by plucking strings
interval the distance between notes
largo very slow tempo
lento slow tempo
lied German song
lyre an ancient harp
mass music for a Catholic service
measure the space on a staff between two bar lines
melody concerns the sequence of notes
meter the organization of beats into groups
meter signature the numerical symbol at the beginning of a composition to indicate the meter ex. 2/4, 3/4, 4/4
moderato intermediate tempo
motif a recurring group of notes, as the four in Beethoven's 5th symphony
movement a large section of lengthy composition
note a musical sound of specific pitch, for example, middle C
opus a work, usually identified by a number
oratorio a major orchestral piece with solo voices and chorus
orchestra a large group of instrument players, usually 75-90
percussion instruments sounded by striking, as drums, cymbals, and chimes
pitch the frequency of a sound wave
polyphony choral music with several simultaneous voice-lines
presto very fast tempo
rhythm concersn the relative duration of the notes
rondo the main feature is the return of the main theme, which alternates with secondary themes.
scale the succession of notes arranged in an ascending order
sonata a work for one or two instruments
song form when the first section of a simple ternary form is repeated
staff the five lines on which musical notes are written
strings violin, viola, cello, and double bass
subject the principal melodic motif or phrase, especially in a fugue
symphony a major orchestral composition
syncopation a rhythmic effect produced when the expected rhythm pattern is deliberately upset
tempo the pace of the music
timbre the characteristic sound of a specific pitch
tone a musical sound of a specific pitch
woodwinds instruments originally made of wood, including the piccolo, flute, clarinet, oboe, bassoon, and saxophone
abstract a nonrepresentational composition created through the use of form, line, and color
accent the emphasis in a picture, set off by the use of value, shape, or contrasting color
advancing colors colors that appear to "come forward" usually red, orange, and yellow
analogous colors colors that are closely related to one another (for example, blue, blue-green, and green)
area the flat surface within the borders of a picture
assymmetrical unequal;not identical on both sides of a central line
balance a harmonious arrangement of the elements of a composition
blending a device used to allow one color or tone to merge with another
center of interest the area of focus; the part of a picture that attracts the most attention
chroma the strength or purity of a color
collage an artwork made by gluing pieces of paper, photographs, cloth, and other materials together in an overlapping desing
color light waves of different lengths create colors to the eye. Color also includes hue, value, and intensity
color harmony an effect that is unified and aesthetically pleasing. It is produced by combining colors that are similar in one or more aspects
color scheme the dominant color arrangement in a picture used to create color unity
contemplementary colors colors opposite each other on the color wheel complement each other
composition the particular arrangement of form, colors, lines, and other elements used in a drawing or painting
contour an outline or profile of an object
contrast strong differences in form, line, texture, and/or color.
cool colors green, blue-green, and violet; often used to suggest wet objects
crosshatch parallel lines crossing other parallel lines, creating value and texture
delineation representing an object by using lines instead of mass
depth the illusion of distance on a flat surface
design a planned arrangement of the composition elements
distortion arranging art elements to suggest something other than a natural shape. It is used to create emotion in the viewer
dominant the most significant element of a composition
edge the outline or border of a form or shape. A sharp or distinct border is called a hard edge. A blurred or diffused border is called a soft-edge
ellipse the shape of a circle when viewed at an angle, used to obtain perspective
emphasis the stress or accent on a particular element of a composition
eye level the horizontal plane depicted by the artist in a composition, also called the horizontal line
focal point the center of interest in a composition
foreshorten using the laws of perspective to shorten forms, objects or figures
form the actual 3-dimensional shape and structure of a composition object
gradation the gradual change in value, tint, or color as rendered in a picture
harmony the pleasing arrangement of picture elements based on using similar qualities of shape, size, and color
horizon line an imaginary horizontal line that represents the height or actual direction of the observer's vision
hue the name used to distinguish a color, such as red, blue, or blue-green
intensity the strength, saturation, or purity of a color
line any continuous, unbroken mark
negative space the area or space in a composition not represented by the principal focus point
opaque the limitation of light; not transparent or translucent
outline the outside edge of a figure or object; a sketch using only line, without shading
perspective a geometric method for representing 3-dimensional relations on a flat surface and for indicating depth
primary colors blue, red, and yellow and other hues can be prepared by combining these 3 colors
proportion the relationship (size) of one part of a composition to another or of one part to the whole
realism the depiction of a form in a realistic, or true-to-life, manner; re-creating the semblance of an object
relief sculpted figures projecting from a background
rhythm the repetition of similar elements in a composition, such as colors, forms, values, and lines
secondary colors orange, green and violet. they are prepared by mixing equal amounts of two primary colors
shade the result of mixing a pure color and a quantiy of black; surface shadows on an object used to indicate form
spectrum the arrangement of colors as they are refracted into a rainbow by a prism
still life the pictorial arrangement of inanimate objects
symmetry the arrangement of objects so that there is a similarity in size, shape, and relative positioning on opposite sides of a composition; mirror-image or equal balance in a composition
technique the characteristics of a particular medium; the style of a particular artist
teriary colors intermediate colors prepared by mixing unequal amounts of two primary colors
texture the appearance or suggested feel of a flat surface
three-dimensional possessing the qualities of height, width, and depth
tint a mixture of white and a pure color
translucent a material or representation that transmits light, but not so well that an object can be clearly seen through it
transparent a material or representation through which objects can be clearly seen
two-dimensional representing only the dimensions of width and height without delineating depth, thickness, or solid form
value the lightness or darkness of a color or hue
vanishing point the point at which receding parallel lines converge
warm colors colors that are associated with heat or dry objects, generally red, orange, and yellow
abstraction the essence of an idea applied to the art of movement
adagio as in music, the opposite of allegro, or a slower tempo; it is a set of practice exercises in class consisting of extensions and balances
alignment the way in which various parts of the dancer's body are in line with one another while the dancer is moving
allegro from the musical term, this refers to quick or lively movements
arabesque a pose in which the working leg is extended with a straight knee directly behind the body (both the height of the leg and the position of the arms are variable)
attitude a pose modeled after the staue of the winged mercury by bologna in which the working leg is extneded behind the body with the knee bent; can also be held in front of the body
barre a round rail attached to the wall horizontally, about 3 1/2 feet above the floor, for dancers to hold during the first half of technique class; also used for stretching the legs by placing the feet or legs on it
basic positions the 5 positions of the arms and feet; basis for all steps in the vocabulary of the classic dance
body movement includes locomotor (moving from one place to another) and axial (contained movement around an axis of the body)
choreography the steps of a dance as put together for performance or the art of composing dances
classical refers to the lexicon of dance as taught in the original academies; also used in reference to ballets as created during the Imperial Russian days
corps de ballet literally, the "body of the ballet," or the chorus; the dancers who stand behind the principals, forming a stage picture with their poses;
creative movement dance movement that is primary and nonfunctional, with emphasis on body mastery for expressive and communicative purposes
dance all-inclusive term meaning the aesthetics of movement
dance form structure that embodies a choreographed dance
dance style specific manner of performing, characteristic of a period, culture, individual, and so on
dance type category such as tap, jazz, modern or ethnic
dance-pointe on the ball of the foot or half-toe
elevation the ability to get up into the air and remain there long enough to perform various movements or poses
en bas low;usually in reference to an arm position
en haut high; used to indicate when the arms are raised over the head
en l'air refers to steps performed in the air or to a leg that is in the air
entrechat a "beating" movement in which the feet criss-cross one another around the ankles in the air with the legs straight
explorations experimentation with the uses of movement in human responses
extension raising the leg to a straightened position with the foot very high above the ground; the ability to lift and hold the leg in position off the ground
force release of potential energy into kinetic energy
grand jete a leap from one leg to the other in which the the working leg is kicked or thrown away from the body and into thei air; the pose achieved in the air differs as does the direction the leap takes
grnad jete en tournan (tour jete) In this leap, the dancer turns halway in midair to land facing hte direction in which the movement started
improvisation movement without previous planning
kinesthetic awareness feeling the dance movements of others in one's own muscles
lifts a part of pas de deux in which one dancer is lifted off the ground by another
line the arrangement of head, shoulders, arms, torso, and legs while dancing
modern dance type of creative dance involving specialized movement techniques; emphasis is on expressions and communication
movement materials sequences, motifs, and phrases developed as the choreographed dance
muscle memory the way in which most choreography is remembered by dancers
neoclassicism a term coined to denote that form and technique of dancing which came after classicism; often used in reference to George Balanchine, although he never used this expression to describe his work
pas de deux literally, "a step for two"; referring to a specific codified form that is choreographed in many classical ballets; also used to refer to any section of a dance performed by two dancers together
passe a passing position in which the foot passes by the knee of the supporting leg. When this position is heled, as in pirouettes, with the foot of the working leg resting against the knee of the supporting leg, it is known as reitre
pirouette french, "to twirl or spin"; a turn on one foot that can be executed outward, away from the body, or inward, toward the body
pointe dancing on the toes
postmodern dance a term coined in the 1960s by those who wished to create movement outside the invluences of any of the then-traditional modern dance pioneers such as Cunningham, Graham, Humphre, Limon, and Taylor
promenade an adagio movement in which the dancer pivots completely around on one foot while maintaining a pose with the working leg
romantic era a period from about 1820-1870 in which ballet was characterized primarily by supernatural subject matter, long white tutus, dancing on the toes, and theatrical innovations that permitted the dimming of the house lights for theatrical illusion
space immediate area surrounding the body; the area in which bodies can move at all levels
spotting focusing the eyes on one point in the distance in order to keep balance while turning
stasis the state of being at rest
supporting leg the leg upon which the dancer is balancing
time the duration of a dance; can be divided into the rate of speed (fast, moderate or slow); metric time (beat, pulse, accent, tempo and duration).
turnout rotating the leg outward from the hip such that the feet form a straight line on the floor, toes facing away from each other; a way of holding hte body, developed in ballet, that allows the dancer more articulation, speed, and variety of movement
working leg the leg that is delineating movement
Created by: josboys