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Chapter 8 - ANT2410


relatives by marriage; in-laws affinal
form of bilateral descent; individual may choose to affiliate w/either father’s/mother’s descent group ambilineal descent
principle of classifying kin under which different kinship terms are used for mother’s side of family & father’s side of family bifurcation
system of descent under which individuals are equally affiliated w/&mothers’ & fathers’ descent group bilateral descent
unilineal kinship group whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor but who cannot trace this link through known relatives clan
any nonunilineal system of descent cognatic descent
kin descended from common ancestor; not in direct ascendant/descendant line, such as siblings & cousins collateral kin
political structure in which higher-order units form alliances that emerge only when lower-order units come into conflict complementary opposition
relatives by blood; people related to Ego by blood are distinguished from similar relations by marriage consanguineal relatives
blood ties between people consanguinity
permanent kinship groups that have an existence beyond the membership at any given time corporate descent groups
children of a parent’s siblings of opposite sex (mother’s brothers, father’s sisters) cross cousins
culturally established affiliation between a child and one or both parents descent
group of kin who are descendants of a common ancestor, extending beyond two generations descent group
tracing of descent through both matrilineal & patrilineal links, each of which is used for different purposes double descent
rule specifying that a person must marry outside a particular group exogamy
biological father genitor
transfer of property between generations inheritance
unique kin network made up of all people related to a specific individual in bilateral kinship system kindred
culturally defined relationship established on the basis of blood ties or through marriage kinship
totality of kin relations, kin groups, & terms for classifying kin in a society; embedded in economic systems kinship system
words used to identify different categories of kin in a particular culture kinship terminology
group of kin whose members trace descent from a known common ancestor lineage
blood relations linked through descent, such as Ego, Ego’s mother, Ego’s grandmother, and Ego’s daughter lineal kin
lineage formed by descent in the female line matrilineage
rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes related through females only matrilineal descent
granting of privilege or favoritism on the basis of family relationships nepotism
any system of descent in which both father’s & mother’s lineages have equal claim to individual nonunilineal descent
children of a parent’s same-sex siblings (mother’s sisters, father’s brothers) parallel cousins
socially designated father of a child, who may or may not be the biological father pater
lineage formed by descent in the male line patrilineage
rule that affiliates a person to kin of both sexes related through males only patrilineal descent
unilineal descent group composed of number of clans whose members feel themselves to be closely related phratry
form of sociopolitical organization in which multiple descent groups (usually patrilineages) form at different levels & function in different contexts segmentary lineage system
transfer of office or social position between generations succession
animal, plant/other aspect of natural world held to be ancestral/to have other intimate relationships w/members of a group totem
immigrants who maintain close relations with their home countries transmigrant
pattern of close ties and frequent visits by immigrants to their home countries transnationalism
descent group membership based on links through either maternal/paternal line, but not both unilineal descent
most Americans understand ourselves & each other as __ first & __ __ second individuals; family members
relationships between individuals are governed mainly by kinship norms
is main way of allying groups to one another & incorporating strangers into a group extension of kinship ties
kinship is central in determining people's __ & __ rights; responsibilities
work, citizenship, & common economic & political interests are other principles of __ __ in Western society social organization
kin group & social institution in Western societies; inheritance of property is mainly along kinship lines nuclear family
in every society formation of __ & regulation of __ depend to some extent on socially recognized ties of kinship groups; behavior
kinship systems link people in a web of rights & __ obligations
kinship systems rest on __ defined __ relationships culturally; biological
ways in which society classifies kin are cultural
ways in which society classifies kin may/may not reflect __ __ assessment of biological ties scientifically accurate
biological paternity is irrelevant; fatherhood established by performance of ritual; social fatherhood is what counts Toda of India
culturally defined __ __ __ have 2 basic functions ties of kinship
kinship provides __ between generations continuity
kinship unit is fundamentally responsible for __ & __ of children care; education
kinship unit is fundamentally responsible orderly __ __ __ & social position between generations transmission of property
kinship defines a __ __ __ on whom a person can depend on for aid universe of others
fact the expanded kin groups are found in so many human societies shows the __ of social groups larger than the __ __ adaptiveness; nuclear family
descent is an important basis of __ __ __ social groups formation
descent group applies to __ __ who are lineal descendants of a __ __ extending beyond 2 generations consanguineal kin; common ancestor
where descent groups are found they have important functions in organization of domestic life
where descent groups are found they have important functions in __ of children enculturation
where descent groups are found they have important functions in use & transfer of __, __ & __ offices property; political; ritual
where descent groups are found they have important functions in __ of disputes settlement
where descent groups are found they have important functions in __ organization & __ political; warfare
2 basic types of descent rules that operate in society are unilineal & bilateral descent
2 types of unilineal descent rules are patrilineal & matrilineal descent
bilateral descent is used for basis of reckoning descent & establishing __ & __ of kinship rights; obligations
major distinction of systems of bilateral & unilineal descent is that __ __ __ do not overlap unilineal kinship systems
father's brother's children would be your cousins & therefore members of your kin in American bilateral kinship system
father's brother's children would be kin to you but not to their mother's family patrilineal kinship system
if all families had same number of children more people would be in a __ system than in a __ system bilateral; unilateral
people in a __ system are bound more tightly to each other because there is no __ of kinship unilateral; overlap
most societies throughout the world have a __ kinship unilineal
bilateral kinship is a common practice in __ cultures Western
because unilineal descent groups do not overlap this system provides __ group membership for everyone in the society unambiguous
where descent is traced through only one line, group membership is __ & __ defined easily; clearly
people can be sure of their right of ownership, social duties, & social roles as well as relate to large numbers of known/unknown people in society by knowing __ __ of others & to which they below descent group
descent groups can perpetuate themselves over time even though their membership changes because unilineal group membership is unambiguous
old members die & new one admitted through birth, but integrity of __ group persists corporate
unilineal descent share certain __ __ throughout the world, but do not operate __ the same in every society basic similarities; exactly
are basically means by which society relates to its environment & circumstances system of descent & kinship
actual behavior in any society does not correspond exactly to rules as they are defined in kinship ideology
as environment & circumstances change rules of kinship are bent & manipulated so that a group may be successful
accepted departures from norms existing in every society give unilineal systems a __ they would otherwise lack, which is necessary for human __ flexibility; adaptation
common economic & historical interests cause people to join together & define themselves as a __ __ justified by kin relations collective entity
kinship ideologies can be manipulated & negotiated to fit new realities
lineages may vary in __ __ from three generation upward time depth
lineages are considered corporate group where land is owned __ & where members are held __ for one another's __ collectively; responsible; behavior
__ lineages may for clans related
common __ __ may be mythological figures, or where no specific ancestor is known/named clan ancestor
lineage is often __ __ or __ __ whose members cooperate on a daily basis local residential; domestic group
clans are generally not __ units but tend to __ __ over many villages residential; spread out
clans often have __ & __ functions rather than primarily __ & __ ones political; religious; domestic; economic
one of most important functions of clan is to regulate marriage
clans are __ by a rule of exogamy governed
__ __ __ within the clan strengthens it unilineal character prohibition against marriage
if person marries __ __ __, his/her children would find difficult to make sharp distinctions between maternal & paternal relatives within the clan
wrote of Crow Indians of N America; clans are very important & case of marriage within clan person would not know how to act towards others & they to act towards him/her Robert H Lowie
also extends network of peaceful & social relations within society as different clans are allied through marriage clan exogamy
man, his sisters & brothers, his brother's children (not his sister's), his own children, & his son's children all belong to same group; inheritance & succession to office moves from father to son patrilineal descent groups
pastoral people of Sudan E Africa; patrilineal society; all rights, privileges, obligations, & interpersonal relationships regulated by kinship; father, his brothers, & their children are closet kin Nuer
most significant fact of life for Nuer; confers rights to land, requires participation in certain religious ceremonies, & determines political & judicial obligations, as making alliances in feuds/warfare membership in patrilineal descent group
in absence of a centralized system of political control, in Nuer societies, kinship based __ are important mechanism of government alliances
Nuer believe kin should not __ with one another, __ within lineage/clan tend to be kept small & __ rapidly fight; disputes; settled
because all who are not in some way kin are __, in Nuer society, attack on one lineage segment may cause all members of a clan to coalesce against a(n) __ __ enemies; common enemy
segmentary lineage system has important __ implications for Nuer & helps __ their tribal-level society political; integrate
Nuer are divided in to 20 clans, further divided by lineages
below level of clan, in Nuer society, are segments called maximal lineages
maximal lineages are broken down into __ __ spread over many villages major lineages
major lineages are subdivided into __ lineages, which in turn are made up of __ lineages minor; minimal
contains 3-5 generations & is basic descent group that functions in day-to-day activities of Nuer society; live in same village & regard one another as close relatives minimal lineage
minimal lineage, of Nuer, are politically __ & there is not formal or centralized __ above this level independent; leadership
are called upon to function mainly in context of conflict in Nuer society higher-order lineages
Nuer clans nor lineages have any corporate life & their members do not live together; coming together of members of clans/lineages occurs when lower-order segments come into conflict Evans-Pritchard
serious dispute between members of different __ lineages, ___ lineage members take side of nearest kin in Nuer society lower-order; higher-order
Nuer clans & lineages function as contingent __ __ rather than formal parts of political structure alliance networks
particularly functional when stronger tribes want to expand to nearby territories held by weaker tribes segmentary lineage systems
complementary opposition direct energies of society __, away from __ between kin, to an __ enemy upward; competition; outside
degree to women are incorporated into __ of her husband & degree of __ she has varies in different societies patrilineage; autonomy
a woman may retain __ __ __ in her father's lineage, under patrilineal societies right of inheritance
under patrilineal societies, great care taken to guarantee husband's rights & control over his wife/children because __ of descent group depends on this continuity
patrilineal systems most often have __ rules of residence, so wife may find herself living among __, tending to undermine female __ & __ patrilocal; strangers; solidarity; support
analysis of families in Arab world; issues of honor/shame; generalizations gloss over many conflicts, doubts, & arguments of life as it is really lived Abu-Lughod ethnography
in Arab families, women often portrayed in terms of partilineality, polygyny, & patrilateral parallel-cousin marriage ideal kinship patterns
in Arab families __ revolves around male's ability to protect sexuality of women in his family honor
challenges static pictures of authoritarian patriarchy by analyzing story of Bedouin women who rebel against norms of their society in small & sometimes effective ways Lila Abu-Lughod
social __ & cultural __ are closely intertwined institutions; ideologies
basic to interrelationships of social institutions & cultural ideologies, including access to production, wealth & property economic systems
there are no cultures in which people __ as they are supposed to, as the __ to them to behave; rules
as economic systems __, people's actual behavior tends to depart more frequently from the rules change
two fundamental ties recognized in every society are that between women & their children and siblings
most important position is that of mother's brother; man gains sexual & economic rights over woman when he marries, but does not gain rights to children; many rights belong to woman's brother matrilineal societies
consists of woman, her brothers & sisters, her sister's (but not brother's) children, her own children, & children of daughters (but not son's) membership of matrilineal descent group
tend to be correlated w/matrilocal rule of residence; man goes to live with/near wife's kin after marriage; husband plays far less important role in household; marriages tend to be less stable matrilineal systems
possible for matrilineally organized group to do away w/presence of husbands & father altogether, as long as there are brothers who assume responsibilities Nayar of India
matrilineal figure of authority & respect; children of man's sister, rather than his own, are his heirs & successors mother's brother
matrilineal society, relationship between man & his son is likely to be affectionate & loving because it is free of problems of authority & control
occur in only 5% of world's cultures double descent system
have system of double descent; daily domestic life strongest among patrilineal related kinsmen, jointly control farms & plots of land, patriclan is source of rights over farmland & forest products Yako of Nigeria
one obligation is to provide food at funerals; arbitration of disputes lies in hands of senior members patriclan
Yako membership in men's associations & rights to fruit trees are inherited through the male line
Yako, cooperation in ritual & succession to some religious offices are derived from patriclan membership
matrilineal __ & clan __ are important in Yako society bonds; membership
rights & obligations of mother's brother/sons & authority of priest of matrilineal clan based on mystical ideas regarding perpetuation & tranquility in Yako World practical assistance to matrilineal kin
fertility of crops, beasts, & humans, & peace between individuals & within community associated with & passed on through women Yako belief
Yako matrilineage held together by __ __ of common fertility mystical bonds
violence between matrilineal members of Yako are considered sinful
Yako's mystical bonds mystical bonds of common fertility are reinforced in cult of __ __ whose priests are ritually given qualities of women matriclan spirits
Yako, transfer of __ __, but no land, belong to matrilineal kinship group accumulated wealth
Yako members of matriclans supervise __ & arrange for disposal of personal property of __ funerals; dead
all Yako currency & livestock pass to __ __ who also receive greater share of tolls, weapons & household goods matrilineal relatives
Yako movable property of women pass to daughters
Yako matriclans responsible for __ of kin debts
Yako matriclans responsible for __ to one another at reasonable rates loans
Yako matriclans responsible for providing part of __ transferred at marriage of sister's son bridewealth
each contains different qualities from which flow rights, obligations, & benefits, both practical/spiritual, that bind Yako to one another & ensure continuity of the society paternity & maternity
40% of world's societies structured around kinship systems that are nonunilineal, or cognatic
nonunilineal/cognatic systems are further divided into __ & __ descent bilateral; ambilineal
individual considered related equally to other kin through both mother's/father's side bilateral descent system
individual formally affiliated w/large number of relations extended lineally through time but only on one side of family unilineal kinship system
appear to be particularly adaptive in societies in which mobility & independence are important; basic to Western culture incl. US & predominate among foraging societies bilateral kinship systems
people linked by __ __ networks are called kindred bilateral kin
kindred is not a group, rather network of relations w/single group of __ at center siblings
kindred are actually __ __ of kin, rather than social groups; more difficult to organize as cooperative __ __ overlapping categories; kin-based collectives
because a kindred is not a group but rather a(n) __ network, it cannot own land or have continuity over time ego-centered
in an ambilineal system, individuals may choose to affiliate with either their mother's/father's descent group, but not both
ambilineal descent is found in many __ __ societies Pacific Island
at marriage, in Pacific Island societies, new couple chooses to live & identify with either spouse's descent group
choice of descent group association, in Pacific Island societies, usually depends upon access to land
friendship & politics also play important role in __ __ new couple chooses to live & identify with in Pacific Island society descent group
total system of kinship terms & rules for using these terms kinship classification system
kinship systems vary in degree to which they have different kinship terms for different kinship relatives
ways in which kin are __ are associated with roles they play in society classified
kinship terms refer to __ __, actual behavior is modified by individual personality differences & special circumstances behavioral expectations
one of most important regulators of behaviors in most societies, outlining each person's rights/obligations & specifying ways in which person must act towards others & they towards him/her kinship classification
kinship __ __ also related to types of social groups formed, systems of marriage/inheritance, & even deeper or broader cultural values classification systems
husband's elder brother in North Indian societies jait
husband's elder brother's wife in North Indian societies jaitani
husband's younger brother in North Indian societies deva
husband's younger brother's wife in North Indian societies devrani
must be treated w/deference, touching their feet when meeting them, & refraining from using first names in North Indian society jait & jaitani
may be treated w/friendly informality in North Indian society deva & devrani
there are 45 kinship terms in North India
there are 22 kinship terms in US
distinguishes several kinds of kin reflecting greater inflexibility in behavior toward kin N Indian Kinship classification system
many of N Indian __ __ underlying kinship terminology based on importance of __, __ extended family cultural patterns; patrilineal; patrilocal
in North Indian society family of bride has __ __ than that of the groom lower status
in North Indian society obligations of __ __ towards parents, including specific ritual obligations of eldest male child
cultural patterns in North Indian society based on hierarchy & importance of group
values of __, __ & __ __ expressed in N American kinship terminology equality; individualism; nuclear family
aspect of hierarchy, critical to Indian kinship system principle of relative age
father's elder brother in North Indian society tau
father's younger brother in North Indian society chacha
father's elder brother's wife in North Indian society tai
father's younger brother's wife in North Indian society chachi
still common for many N Indian women to __ __ __ if not their faces in presence of both father-in-law & husband's elder brother cover their hair
Indian differentiation of kin according to whether from mother's side or father's side of family bifurcation
grandparent's on father's side in North Indian society dadi & dada
grandparent's on mother's side in North Indian society nani & nana
man's wife's brother in North Indian society sala
man's sister's husband jija
in India man's sister's husband is in __ __ relative to him than his wife's brother higher position
functions in guiding behavior are resisted & manipulated in response to pragmatic interest, social circumstances & emotion structure relationships between kin in N India
in N India contesting claims over family property may lead to alliances within family that contrast with cultural rules about seniority & patriarchal power
illness of some Indian family members may also direct flow of resources in directions not covered, & even in opposition to, kinship rules governing reciprocity
has altered realities of kinship relations among many immigrant communities global migration
study of kinship systems goes to __ point of anthropology fundamental
kinship systems use the __ __ __, but they are social systems, not biological ones metaphor of biology
societies differ in the __ of relatives they distinguish and the __ by which kin are classified categories; principles
position of individual from whose perspective the kinship system is seen Ego
distinguishes ascending & descending generation from Ego generation principle
kinship system that has different kinship terms for relatives that are older than oneself & relatives younger relative age principle
English kinship terminology does not recognize the __ __ principle relative age
collateral kin are descended from a common ancestor with Ego but are not __ ascendants or descendants direct
in collateral kinship Ego may refer to both his father & father's brother as father
in collateral kinship Ego may refer to both his mother & her sisters as mother
kinship system that has different kin terms for people of different genders principle of gender
English word uncle does not distinguish between __ & __ relationships consanguineal; affinal
societies which distinguish collateral relatives the __ __ __ relative may be important in kinship terminology sex of linking
individual, related to you consanguineally linking relative
when sex of your parent & linking relative are the __ the children who you are linked are parallel cousins same
generation, relative age, lineality vs. collaterality, gender, consanguineal vs affinal kin, side of family, & sex of linking relative 7 different system of kinship
7 different system of kinship w/names of Native American groups, 1st described in 19th century Lewis Henry Morgan
found in Polynesia; uses fewest kinship terms; emphasize distinction between generations & reflects equality between mother's/father's side of family in relation to Ego Hawaiian
Hawaiian, all relatives of same __ & __ are referred to by same kinship term generation; sex
Hawaiian male/female kin in __ __ distinguished in terminology, but in terms for sister & brother are same for children of one's parent's siblings Ego's generation
correlated w/bilateral descent; emphasizes nuclear family by using terms for members that are not used for any other kin Eskimo
singles out biologically closest group of relations & treats more distant kin more/less equally Eskimo system
associated w/matrilineal or double descent & emphasizes importance of unilineal descent groups Iroquois
found among patrilineal people; merging of generations on mother's side but not father's side; generational differences important on father's side ascending generation may have some authority over Ego; mother's patrilineage unimportant to Ego Omaha
matrilineal equivalent to Omaha; relations on male side lumped together whereas generational differences are recognized in mother's matrilineal group Crow
overriding importance of unilineality leads to subordination of other principles of classifying kin, such as relative age or generation Crow & Omaha
since no __ __ group used Morgan's final kinship system he named it Sudanese North American
African groups primarily in Ethiopia; also some places in Turkey & ancient Rome; most descriptive terminology system; different terms for every relative; groups tend to be strongly patrilineal & concerned w/issues of wealth, class & political power Sudanese
kinship classification systems are part of the __ of a kinship system totality
each type of classification emphasizes most important kinship __ & __ in societies that use it groupings; relationships
found in unilineal societies emphasize importance of lineage & clan Iroquois, Omaha, & Crow
emphasize partilineality, primogeniture, seniority, Confucian ethics & patriarchal authority & control rules of kinship in Asian villages
eldest son inherits all father's property primogeniture
stresses filial piety Confucian ethics
obligation of sons to their fathers filial piety
studies by Soo Ho Choi; eldest son gets lion's share of family property in return for care of elderly parents & worship them as ancestors after death Pine Tree, Korea
contributing to marriages, education, & living expenses of his younger siblings compassionate generosity
rice-growing society in W Sumatra Indonesia; one of few matrilineal Islamic societies in S Asia Minangkabu
Minangkabu women wield significant informal power in their families & matrilineages Evelyn Blackwood
central site of Minangkabu social relations, containing extended family of 3-4 generations "big house" or "matrihouse"
central house post identified w/senior woman who is called "the central pillar of the big house"