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Chapter 7 - ANT2410


giving & receiving of goods of nearly equal value with a clear obligation of return gift within a specified time limit balanced reciprocity
productive resources that are used with primary goal of increasing their owner’s financial wealth capital
economic system in which people work for wages, land & capital goods are privately owned, & capital is invested for profit capitalism
ritual system common in Cent./S. America in which wealthy people are required to hold a series of costly ceremonial offices cargo system
norms governing production, distribution, & consumption of goods & services within a society economic system
study of the ways in which & choices people make combine to determine how their society uses its scarce resources to produce & distribute goods/services economics
institution composed of kin &/or non-kin that is organized primarily for financial gain firm
giving and receiving goods with no immediate or specific return expected generalized reciprocity
group of people united by kinship or other links who share a residence & organize production, consumption, & distribution among themselves household
pattern of exchange among trading partners in the S. Pacific islands Kula ring
practice, value, or form of social organization that evens out wealth within a society leveling mechanism
economic system in which goods & services are bought & sold at a money price determined primarily by forces of supply/demand market exchange
exchange conducted for purpose of material advantage & desire to get something for nothing negative reciprocity
form of redistribution involving competitive feasting practiced among NW Coast Native Americans potlatch
material goods, natural resources/info used to create other goods/info productive resources
mutual give & take among people of equal status reciprocity
exchange in which goods are collected then distributed to members of a group redistribution
all human societies have __ __ economic systems
sum of choices people make regarding these areas of their lives economic aspect of culture
choices based on economic aspect of culture are __ by our cultures, traditions, & technologies constrained
set boundaries within which choices about production, distribution, & consumption of goods/services are made environments
every society must have a(n) __ system economic
economics deals w/things & __ of things to people & people to one another in process of producing, distributing, & consuming goods relationship
one aspect of relationship is that __ defines or shapes ends sought by individuals & __ of achieving those ends culture; means
society & economy are __ interdependent
families tend to have as many children as possible; lrg families can cultivate more land & wealthier than small families; leaders acquire political power & social prestige from wealth & numerous relations southern Mali
difficult to separate the economic system from rest of the culture
economics embedded in total __ process & __ pattern social; cultural
few groups are organized solely for purpose of production; economic activities are (1) aspect of what they do; production carried out by families, kinship groups, or local communities nonindustrial & kin-based societies
for nonindustrial & kin-based societies distribution, exchange, & consumption of goods is embedded in __ that have __ & __ purposes as well as economic ones relationships; social; political
__ __ of economies developed in Western market economy academic discipline
fundamental assumption of Western microeconomic theory idea of scarcity
economists assume that human __ are unlimited but means for __ them are not wants; achieving
assume that individuals & org. will make choices on best way to apply limited means to unlimited desires in way they believe will provide them with greatest benefit economists
some scholars equate benefit with material well-being & profit
notion of __ __ does not completely explain economic behavior financial profit
economic choices are based on some __ of benefit, not necessarily __ to human profit calculation; reducible
people make rational choices based on their __ & __ about the future needs; guesses
cultures, values, & institutions provide the __ within which economic choices are made framework
live in area of Tanzania w/abundance of animal/vegetable food; considerable leisure time but do not attempt to increase wealth Hazda
only one of the ends towards which people expend effort leisure time
Western society __ primarily ties to increased consumption & display of goods/services prestige
CEO of Microsoft & head of world's largest charitable foundation Bill Gates
anthropologists must analyze broad __ & __ contexts within which people make decision institutional; social
anthropologists must __ & __ factors that motivate individual decision making determine; evaluate
all societies must engage in __ , acquire __, & have some system through which __ to use such resources are allocated production; resources; rights
people must be __ in specific ways to use resources in production of goods & services organized
each society has a system of __ & a distinct style & __ of consumption distribution; pattern
productive resources are the things that members of a society need to participate in the economy
access the the knowledge that allows one to make & use tools plays important role in all societies
access to knowledge plays critical role in modern American society seen in strong relationship between university degrees & income
US Dept Educ. 2006 American's age 25-34 w/BS degree earned __ more than those w/associate's degree & __ more than those w/high school diploma 28%; 50%
important point of contrast between economic systems is extent to which individuals & groups have access to productive resources
__ access to resources develops as population & social complexity increase differential
only 3% of student's at America's most selective universities come from households in lowest 25% of income scale
only 10% of student's at America's most selective universities come from households in lowest 50% of income scale
plays critical role in determining access to knowledge & access to such knowledge plays critical role in future with wealth & social position family wealth
have limited number of productive resources, & most everyone has access to them small-scale economies
have great many resources but access to them is limited large-scale economies
weapons used in hunting animals & tools used in gathering plants & knowledge to make/use these are productive resources in foraging societies
men of Hazda spend much time gambling
men of Hazda never share/gamble their bow, bird's arrows, & leather bag because they are essential for survival
land & water are the most __ __ for foragers critical resources
hunting ground in foraging societies are not __ __ because __ __ have an adaptive value exclusively owned; flexible boundaries
foraging ranges can be adjusted as availability of resources changes in particular area flexible boundaries
abundance & predictability of resources also affect __ __ of foragers territorial boundaries
each camp had core area of circle w/water hole at center & radius of about 6 miles; territories associated w/long-standing residents spoken of as owners & permission needed to use land's resources Ju/'hoansi
require freedom of movement as condition of success in their search for food & for dealing w/social conflict hunters & gatherers
if land were individually or communally defended against outsider, freedom of movement for foragers societies would be severely limited
most critical resources are livestock & land; within camps, members share equal access to pastures pastoralists
pastoralists' access to grasslands/water is gained through membership in kin groups
in pastoralists' camps __ __ __ rather than ownership is important right of access
pastoralists' animals are __ by individual families owned
pastoralists consider animals as __ in their own right; prosperity & family status is determined by the numbers wealth
established to access land in villages of agricultural peoples through which the pastoralists' move contracts accessing land
contracts accessing land must be __ each year renewed
contracts accessing land must specify __ for the pasture rent
contracts accessing land must specify __ of the area borders
contracts accessing land must specify __ by which area must be __ date; vacated
yak-herders, NW Tibet; pastoralists; Buddhist monasteries granted rights to families to use pastures in return for tax payments; reviewed each 3rd yr Drokba
land tends to be communally owned by extended kin group; rights to piece of land may be given to households or individuals horticulture societies
swidden farmers in Nigeria; no individual owns land/has rights to it; land vested in kinship groups & allocated to individuals by leaders of groups Ibo
Ibo may not dispose of land at will it is considered __ & may not be sold inalienable
Horticulturalists' rights to cleared & productive land & products are vested in those who work it, most often domestic group or household
highlands of Chiapas, Mexico individuals may farm any piece of unused land; retain rights to cleared land & likely to reuse; migration from the area may lose rights to cleared land but family retains ownership of fruit trees planted on it Lacandon Maya
if Lacandon Maya man dies after investing time/labor clearing & planting land __ & __ retain rights to use land wife; children
in horticulture societies, where population density is low or large areas of land are available for cultivation, rights to land are very loosely held
horticulture group w/extensive lands in Peru there is little exclusive territory Machiguenga
horticulture group Papua New Guinea, specific geographical conditions limit amount of available land or population pressures increase land shortages dealt w/primarily by warfare aimed at driving smaller, weaker groups off their land & annexing it Enga
agriculture comes to dominate __ & __ complex societies politically; technologically
capital is the __ __ of economic organization in capitalist societies principle form
under conditions of __ __ material & labor investment in land becomes substantial intensive cultivation
may grow out of population pressures that produce land scarcity & lead to intensified methods of agriculture individual land ownership
creates conflict as people begin to grumble about not receiving their fair share communal control of land
found that individual ownership of land was correlated w/high population density & intensive cultivation in a study of land rights in New Guinea highlands Brown & Podelefsky
rural village in Bangladesh showed that 48% of families were __ __; had to rent land from larger land owners or work for others functionally landless
individual/family has right to piece of land, & pass land to descendants but cannot be sold/traded in a peasant society usufruct right
in societies w/peasantry __ rather than __ are able to claim rights to most of a land's surplus, enjoying higher levels of consumption & standards of living landowners; cultivators
agriculture in peasant societies tends to be associated w/__ __ characterized by ruling landowning class & with occupational specialization political organization
household or some extended kin group is basic unit of production & consumption small-scale preindustrial & peasant societies
a household is a(n) economic unit
goals are often social or religious rather than monetary; labor is not commodity bought/sold at market; labor important aspect of membership in a social group households & kin groups
labor in household & kin groups provides __ & sense of __ & meaning respect; identity
example of relationship between work & identity gendered division of labor
sexual division of labor is __ biological
caring for infants is almost always primary female role & usually central to female identity
weaving baskets basic to female identity; newborn girls presented w/tools for weaving, & weaving equipment placed w/women when they die Aztec Mexico
weaving considered male task, part of male identity W African societies
an individual's self-image & social status is bound up w/work Pamela Crespin
May 2009 US government reported __ of workforce were unemployed 9.4%
firm does not __ __ for use of its members; items are sold for profit produce goods
individuals tied to firms their labor is a(n) commodity
households cannot easily __ or __ as economy fluctuates expand; contract
__ production & distribution systems tend not to develop under household systems large-scale
firms are geared towards economic growth, decision making __ __ by financial gain motivated primarily
firm's goal is to find mix of __ & __ that will most increase firm's financial value to it's owners capital; labor
firms & households are not __ __ mutually exclusive
firms may be controlled by __ or __ group of families single; small
firms often use the vocabulary of __ & __ to support their goals family; team
firms from supermarket chains to hospitals & airlines promote themselves as communities Casey
among forgers & horticulturalists characteristic division of labor is not by __ but by age & __ job; sex
in society becomes more specialized & complex as population increases & agricultural production intensifies division of labor
spreads throughout society as individuals are able to exchange their services or products they produce for food & wealth occupational specialization
likely to include soldiers, governments officials, & members of priesthood as well as artisans, craftsmen, & merchants in forging & horticulturalist specialists
contemporary India only people belonging to particular hereditary kinship groups can perform certain services or produce certain kinds of goods castes
19th century American workers associated __ with skilled labor, independence, & decision-making power at work masculinity
practices sought to redefine masculinity associating it with working hard-in company of other men in a useful product and being well paid for it rather than skilled independence Ford Motors
one of fundamental bases of culture exchange of goods
theorized that societies were held together by patterns of giving & receiving Marcel Mauss
three main patterns of exchange reciprocity, redistribution, market
3 types of reciprocity can be distinguished from one another by degree of __ __ between exchanging partners social distance
generalized reciprocity is usually carries out among __ __ & is common in foraging bands close kin
without any thought of economic or other self-interest ideally altruistic
generalized reciprocity is recognized in Western culture as it exists between parents & children
generalized reciprocity involving food is an important __ __ among foraging people social mechanism
horticultural group in Brazil, distribution of meat gives a man prestige & opportunity to display culture's most valued trait of generosity Pacaa Nova
balanced reciprocity often dominant form of exchange among __ __ without market economies nonindustrialized people
balanced reciprocity occurs among individuals & groups characterized by production strategies from __ to __ pastoralism; industrialism
goal of balanced reciprocity is not to gain __ over gifting partner advantage
__ __ to give, accept, & return is at heart of balanced reciprocity social obligation
balanced reciprocity is most typical of __ __ among nonindustrialized people without market economies trading relations
notes the greater risk of economic loss, betrayal of confidence, or in fair dealing the important such personalized relations are Plattner
analysis of Kula Ring Malinowski
long necklaces of red shells always traded in clockwise direction soulava
bracelets of white shell always traded in counter clockwise direction mwali
it is morally wrong to cheat a(n) __ in a tribal or peasant society insider
there is every advantage to gain by cheating a(n) __ in a tribal or peasant society outsider
studied Navajo in 1940-50s; deceive when trading w/outsider in morally accepted practice; witchcraft tech. are permissible in trade w/member of foreign tribe Clyde Kluckhohn
Chinese were repeatedly forced to purchase peace from the nomads Mongols
redistribution gives out to the group in a(n) new pattern
pooled resources are reallocated among family members in household food sharing
redistribution is achieved through taxation states societies
redistribution can be important in __ societies where political organizations include bigmen, self-made leaders, who gain power/authority through personal achievement horticultural
potlatches held to honor/validate rank of chiefs & other nobles, usually in connection w/births, deaths, & marriages Kwakiutl & Tlingit
saw potlatches as waste & evidence of native irrationality; outlawed 1885-1951 Canadian government
report that Tanacross & Haida people consider potlatch central symbol of cooperation & respect that separates natives from non-native peoples Simeone & Stearns
report that rivalrous, competitive feasting is found among many people throughout Pacific Islands Rosman & Rubel
type of large feast in Papua New Guinea; men wish to gain prestige accumulate diverse wealth & redistribute to those who attend ceremony Moka
village of Amatenango Chiapas Mexico; production by household & inheritance are leveling mechanisms Manning Nash
ritual position filled by younger man alferez
religious office; involves substantial purchases & donations cargo
in economics, __ __ is making choices in ways believed to provide the greatest benefit economizing behavior
idea that human beings have an instinct to defend a particular piece of territory is a notion that has some popular appeal, but little support from ethnographic data
distinguishing characteristic of land ownership in current capitalist societies is land is commonly owned by individuals
Peasants generally __ a wealthy, landowning class support
capitalism is an economic system that has become __ in the last 300 years predominant