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Chapter 6 - ANT2410

Making A Living

form of food production in which fields are in permanent cultivation using plows, animals, & techniques of soil & water control agriculture
yield per person per hour of labor invested efficiency
food-getting strategy that does not involve food production/domestication of animals & that involves no conscious effort to alter environment foraging (hunting and gathering)
integration of resources, labor, & capital into a global network globalization
production of plants using a simple, non-mechanized technology; fields are not used continuously horticulture
replacement of human & animal energy by machines in the process of production of food & other goods industrialism
production technology that adapts mechanized manufacturing processes in production, processing, & distribution of food industrialized agriculture
form of pastoralism in which the whole social group (men, women, children) & their animals move in search of pasture nomadic pastoralism
food-getting strategy that depends on care of domesticated herd animals pastoralism
society that reckons descent through male line patrilineal
rural cultivators who produce for subsistence of their households but are also integrated into larger, complex state societies peasants
number of people inhabiting a given area of land population density
yield per person per unit of land productivity
tropical woodland characterized by high rainfall & dense canopy of broad-leaved evergreen trees rain forest
settled, living in one place sedentary
way a society transforms environmental resources into food subsistence strategy
form of cultivation in which a field is cleared by felling the trees & burning the brush swidden cultivation
swidden is __ of horticulture typical
swidden cultivation is also called slash and burn
form of pastoralism in which herd animals are moved regularly throughout the year to different areas as pasture becomes available transhumant pastoralism
seek to understand effects of: physical environment on human cultures & vice-versa; interrelationships among cultures within environment; & humans changing subsistence strategies in response to challenges/threats to livelihood ecological anthropologist
the natural environment is also a cultural __ construction
__ is related to type of technology used to exploit any particular environment productivity
in aboriginal America the __ __ supported a relatively small population which survived mainly on hunting bison Great Plains
has enabled humans to transform a wide range of materials into sources of usable energy technological advances
human technologies & __ __ have led to great increases in population density cultural adaptations
due to increases in population density, human tech. & cultural adaptations, have greatly intensified __ __ on the environment human effects
up until 10,000 yr ago all humans lived by fishing, hunting, & collecting vege food
foraging sets limits on population __ & __, as well as on __ of social organization in these societies growth; density; complexity
11-10,000 yr ago human groups in the __ __ began domestication of plants & animals Old World
domestication of plants & animals took place in the __ __ about 10-9,000 years ago New World
domestication of plants/animals allowed support of increased populations, causing sedentary village life to become __ widespread
domestication of plants/animals provided more intensive means of __ & __ __ cultivation; animal management
more intensive means of cultivation & animal management lead to closer coordination/control of __ __ human labor
closer coordination/control of human labor lead to complex social forms, such as the state
within general outline of growing control over environment & increased human population, specific __ & __ conditions explain sequence of events in any particular place environmental; historical
populations such as aboriginal people of __ or the __ never made transition from foraging to food production Australia; Inuit
climate & soil composition, in the __, precluded agriculture Arctic
in fertile valleys of __ aboriginal foraging so productive there was little pressure to make transition to food production California
intro of horses by Spaniards in 16th century led to __ giving up traditional cultivation strategy due to doing so well w/bison hunting Cheyenne
resist abandoning foraging & pastoral way of life because they prefer economic, social, & psychological satisfaction of this lifestyle current foraging/pastoral populations
in current foraging/pastoral populations hunting & pastoralism are highly __ __ valued occupations
current foraging/pastoral populations hunting & pastoralism are intimately connected to a people's __ __ cultural identity
hunting & pastoralism are in some circumstances more __ than agriculture productive
use of chemical __ & __ in industrialized agriculture of food production has greatly increased productivity pesticides; fertilizers
in typical __ __ more than 80% of population directly involved in food production non-industrialized society
today only 1% of the __ population claims farming as primary occupation & only 2% lives on farms US
know names of 100s species of plants/trees; place of each species in web of forest life; importance of vegetal diversity providing animals w/specialized preferred foods; manage resources in diverse, complex, & sophisticated ways Amazonians of rain forests
carefully manage soil, protect ground cover, control humidity, & manage pests in gardens - based on deep understanding of soil, properties of fire, relations of seasons to plant growth, & impact of food-getting activities on environment Kayapo of Xingu River basin S. America
knowledge of medicinal properties of roots, leaves, bulbs & bark of over 30 plants - used by people of S. Africa cure problems headaches, stomachaches, sores/colds, toothache, & intestinal parasites pastoral Dikale
consumer desires & energy needs of industrialized & industrializing nations are the central courses of __ __ today environmental degradation
when the European culture introduced cattle/sheep to Peru they consumed crops of indigenous peoples, __ __ had depended on these crops Inca Empire
European fashions for furs almost destroyed __ __ of fur-bearing animals such as beaver N. America
European consumer demands for __ __ are leading to devastating logging in tropical rainforests tropical hardwoods
European demand for sugar/tobacco resulted in huge areas of __ agriculture, transforming physical environment of Americas monocrop
European demand for sugar/tobacco introduced __ __ to Americas, changing the social environment African slavery
in __ __ of US dam building affected salmon ability to spawn Pacific Northwest
salmon are an important food & also an object of religious awe for the __ __ of the Pacific NW in US Native Americans
resulting from oil consumption & carbon emissions, having harmful effects on many traditional subsistence strategies & potentially catastrophic effects of environment global warming
anthropological approach to each's use & impact on environment typology of subsistence strategies
basic typology of subsistence strategies is broken down into foraging, pastoralism, horticulture, agriculture, & industrialism
each subsistence strategy is a(n) __ __ ideal type
most societies, in particular occurring in last 500 years, practice __ of subsistence strategies combination
dairy & meat products are major part of the pastoralists' diet
agriculture is also known as intensive cultivation
agriculture uses more complex techniques of water/soil control so land is permanently __ & needs no __ period cultivated; fallow
each subsistence strategy __ characteristic level of population density supports
population density supported by a subsistence strategy is the number of persons per __ __ of land square unit
efficiency & productivity tend to be associated with characteristic forms of __ organization & certain __ patterns social; cultural
where local tech. allows only limited exploitation of environment & safe/reliable contraception are unknown may be limited by __ __ that function to space births cultural practices
sexual abstinence, abortion, infanticide, late weaning, & prohibitions on sexual intercourse while child is breast-feeding are ways that cultural practices space births
in addition to limiting population, a society can extend its __ __ by trading resource base
occurs in all types of societies; forms basis of historical/contemporary global economy, inc. all peoples all over world engaging in variety of food production & manufacturing trade
complex hereditary exchange relationship w/Lese; meat, mushrooms, honey, building materials, medicine & agricultural labor for manioc, plantains, peanuts, & rice that is 50% of their diet Mbuti foragers of Ituri rain forest C. America
provided Mbuti w/metal for knives/arrowheads, cotton cloth & aluminum pots Lese
foraging is __ __ includes hunting lrg/sm game, fishing, & collecting various plant foods diverse strategy
use simple tools including digging sticks, spatulas, spears, & bow/arrow; generally live in communities of 20-50 individuals foragers
Arctic foragers depend almost solely on hunting
studies show that women can identify more than 150 species of edible plants & men recognize for than 40 species of edible plants Ju/'hoansi foragers
few of the marginal areas of current-day foragers can support a __ human population year-round
foraging almost always involves __ __ to gain access to food/water seasonal movement
foraging bands tend to have highly __ __ arrangements flexible social
seasonal movement is a strong disincentive for foraging communities to __ material goods accumulate
material possessions of foraging peoples tend to be limited to items essential to survival
people of Great Sandy Desert, Australia; wide range of vegetal foods provided most of diet; can recognize 126 plants serving 138 social, economic, & medicinal functions Pintupi
unreliability of __ __ posed fundamental change to Pintupi water supplies
Pintupi use more than 75 different plants for edible seeds
Pintupi's main constraint on population growth is __ __ __ during the hottest & driest months scarcity of water
Pintupi have population density as low as one person per 150-200 sq miles
most important influence on distance travel, places camp, length of time in one place for Pintupi availability of food & water
wet season for Pintupi; water available, but food scarce & families spread across desert Dec. - Feb. bring greatest material prosperity for Pintupi; edible fruits collected from 12 different plants & stored
Pintupi people live around water holes until August
Pintupi __ __ on plains to attract game & stimulate growth of new grass seeds & tubers for following year set fires
harshest time of year for Pintupi, called "hungry time" November
for Pintupi, if rain does not come by __ foraging ceases almost entirely; average daily intake may be reduce to 800 calories December
beginning in 1920s __ __ tribes began moving to mission/cattle stations, government settlements, & towns around desert fringe due to drought Australian foraging
last Pintupi left the Western Desert in 1996
estimated that adult Dobe Ju/'hoansi of Kalahari spends average of only 2-1/2 (6) hour days/wk in subsistence activities; women can gather enough in 1 day to feed family for 3 days Richard Lee
most foragers have moved to permanent settlements, by __ or __ pressure in current times choice; government
contemporary foraging bands rely on the __ for much of their food market
found in E Africa (cattle), N Africa (camels), SW Asia (sheep/goats), C. Asia (yak), & sub-Arctic (caribou/reindeer) major areas of pastoralism
w/exception of __ & __ in Peru, herds animals found in Americas were not easily domesticated llama; alpaca
pastoralism can be either __ or __ transhumant; nomadic
transhumant pastoralism is found mainly in E Africa
pastoralism is a __ subsistence strategy mixed
__ pastoralist societies tend to based on patrilineal kinship nomadic
in SW Asia nomadic pastoralist characteristic political organization is __ __ w/powerful leaders allied in regional political networks supratribal confederations
SW Asia nomadic pastoralists' were subordinated to various empires on __ & __ plateaus in the past Iranian; Anatolian
SW Asia nomadic pastoralist, for past 200 yrs, have had to adapt policies set by distant governments of __ __, losing mush of their political/military autonomy centralized nation-states
mixed pastoralist adaptation; SE corner of Iran-Baluchistan; occupies plateau 5000 ft above sea level Yarahmadzai
Yarahmadzai live in small camps of 5-25 families
when info about good pasture becomes available the __ Yarahmadzai camp migrates entire
Yarahmadzai camps migrate anywhere from 5-25 miles in each move, due to __ __ quickly being exhausted good pasturage
Yarahmadzai migrate to areas served by government __ __ to earn money by harvesting grain, due to hot/dry seasons irrigation projects
staple food of Yarahmadzai; main source of protein, fat, calcium, & other nutrients milk
many pastoralists today depend less on consuming __ __ of their herds direct products
many pastoralists today depend more on __ of animals & animal products for cash sale
many nomadic pastoralists are becoming __; pastoral __ in a cash economy ranchers; specialists
highly integrated into national & international trade networks; specialize in selling meat animals to local markets, lambskins to international buyers, & sheep intestines to meet German demand for natural sausage casings nomads in Afghanistan & Iran
critics of __ __ claim pastoralist's desires to increase size of herds leads to collective overgrazing & destruction of grasslands nomadic pastoralism
it is government policies of agriculture than directly/indirectly exacerbate environmental __ degradation
horticulturalist cultivated fields are not use year after year, but remain __ for some time after being cultivated fallow
horticulture produces a lower __ per acre & uses less human __ than agriculture yield; labor
horticulturalists grow enough food to support local group
horticulturalists do not produce surplus that involve groups in larger __ __ with nonagricultural populations market system
horticulturalists populations density does not exceed 150 people per sq mile & village may be 100-1000 people
cultivate maize, beans, & squash in dry lands of NE Arizona Hopi Indians
horticulture is __ in tropical rain forest adaptations of SE Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, some Pacific Islands & Amazon Basin in S America typical
horticulturalists in rain forest adaptions practice swidden
in practice of swidden burned vegetation is allowed to remain on soil, preventing drying out from the sun
in practice of swidden bed of ash acts as a __, returning nutrients to soil fertilizer
swidden cultivator's fields are used 1-5 years then allowed to fallow for period up to 20 years
swidden cultivators require 5-6 times as much __ __ as they are actually cultivating fallow land
swidden cultivation can have __ __ on environment is fields are cultivated before lain fallow for long enough to recover forest growth deteriorating effect
because of possibility of __ __ __ swidden cultivation is considered both inefficient & destructive by governments irreversible ecological deterioration
__ & giant __ mainly responsible for deterioration & disappearance of tropical forests, not swidden cultivation logging; agribusiness
domestic pigs are important source of protein for these horticulturists to provide necessary proteins for human health Papua New Guinea
keep goats, chickens, sheep & cows in this horticulturist society to provide necessary proteins for human health Kofyar of Nigeria
this horticulturist society hunt monkeys & other rain forest animals to provide necessary proteins for human health Yanomamo of Amazon
because of __ __ of swidden cultivation, horticulturists have diverse cultures diverse environments
turning the soil w/use of plows, by agriculture, bring nutrients to surface
agriculture requires some form of terracing in order to prevent crops & good soil from being washed away hilly areas
uses techniques of natural fertilization, selective breeding of livestock & crops, & crop rotation, all of which increase productivity preindustrial agriculture
agriculture can support populations increases by more __ __ of the same piece of land intensive use
makes up only 9% of land area; supports 2/3+ of population through intensive wet rice cultivation using elaborate irrigation terraces island of Java, Indonesia
__ population density is well over 200 people/sq mile Javanese
maximum population density of __ __ in Indonesia, is about 145 persons/sq mile swidden areas
growing rice in an __ __ requires about 233 person days of labor/year for each hectare irrigated paddy
about 2.5 acres hectare
agriculture requires more __ __ than horticulture capital investment
agriculturalists are more __ to environment than horticulturists vulnerable
for agriculturalists, who depend on 1-2 crops, one crop __ or __ that strikes draft animals may pose an economic disaster failure; disease
agriculture is __ __ w/sedentary villages, rise of cities/state, occupational diversity, social stratification, & other complex forms of social organization generally associated
some states in Africa were __ on horticulture built
are enmeshed within larger complex societies, instead of those who only grow for subsistence of household farmers (agriculturalists)
part of a farmers __ __ is used to support non-food-producing occupational specialists food production
non-food-producing occupational specialists supported by agriculturalists religious or ruling elites
Egyptian village exhibiting many of general characteristics of peasant villages Musha
Musha characteristics include importance of household in __ production
Musha characteristics include use of __ __ supply outside household supplementary labor
Musha characteristics include need of many farmers depending on __ __ to supplement their income part-time work
Musha characteristics include __ __ from cultivator by state in form of rent, taxes, & free labor surplus extracted
Egypt has long & well-documented history of __ __ in agriculture state intervention
intervention of the state in Musha is typical of __ __ in general peasant societies
multiple strategies for making living in Musha highlight ways both physical & social environments provide __ but also constrain human __ & __ culture/society opportunities; choices; shape
in industrialism focus of __ moves away from food to production of other goods & services production
in industrialism __ in machinery & technologies of communication & info are increasingly important investment
although food production is very large in __ __, only small % of population directly involved in food production industrial society
2005 US fewer than 1 million people, <0.5% of population, had farming as primary occupation
industrialism has led to a shift from subsistence strategies to __ __ wage labor
almost all transactions are mediated by money industrial economies
industrial economies are based on principles that __ must constantly expand & __ standards of living must always rise consumption; material
production systems that put limits on production & consumption, thus making lighter demands on environments foraging, pastoralism, horticulture, & agriculture
contemporary __ & __ societies are characterized by well-coordinated specialized labor forces producing goods/services & smaller elite & managerial classes overseeing day-to-day operations & control of produced/distribution industrial; postindustrial
important economic/social strata; increasing mobility, skill & education required for success government bureaucracies
__ & __ are critical social issues in industrial societies because they require continued expansion generating higher levels of inequality wealth; poverty
__ __ of opportunity, economic failure, illness & misfortune limit __ __ of vast numbers in industrialized societies unequal distribution; life chances
characterize relations among as well as within nations inequalities
creation of complex global systems of exchange between those who supply raw materials & those who use for manufacturing, as well as between __ & __, results in disparities of wealth within & among nations around world manufactures; consumers
characterized by connectedness & change of a magnitude greater than anything seen before contemporary world
particularly sensitive to complex linkages between local, regional, national & global contexts that structure modern world anthropology
today can play important role in shaping government/global economic policies taking into account environmental implications of making a living on all who participate in global markets anthropologists
all foragers exploit __ of their __ diversity; environments
foragers whose traditional hunting strategy includes almost no collecting of plant food; 6000 yrs have hunted bow-head whales, walrus, caribou, & seal Inuit of Arctic Circle
Inuit food quest does follow __ __ of their climate seasonal variation
Inuit __ __ emphasize cooperation & mutual aid cultural values
Inuit __ __ provide effective outlets for isolation & tension of long dark winters religious rituals
Inuit __ __ organization allows local populations to expand/contract in response to seasonal variation in resources flexible kinship
20th-21st centuries has changed Inuit subsistence strategies, they now base livelihoods on combination of __ __ from variety of sources while maintaining traditional foraging cash income
20th century Western demand for furs replaced Inuit subsistence __ with commercial __ hunting; trapping
subsistence hunting & commercial trapping provided Inuit with __ & __ guns; cash
handicrafts, tourism, various government subsidies, & for Alaska Inuit payment from Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act nontraditional sources of Inuit income today
subsistence hunting & __ __ of wildfoods, such as moose, caribou, whales, ducks, fish etc. continue to provide __ or more of Inuit diet traditional uses; half
traditional foraging of Inuit, makes use of __ __ such as snowmobiles, gasoline, fishing nets & sleeping bags modern technologies
many Inuit households have modern conveniences, requiring household members to work __ or __ in cash economy full-time; seasonally
70-yr-old Inuit from Yukon, Canada; 40 yrs ago in summer enough icebergs to land your boat & climb on them, now they are tiny Danny Gordon
Inuit must __ to change of global warming adapt
icebergs/permafrost melting at accelerated rate, due to global warming; difficult for __ __ hunters to maintain cultures & traditional ways of making living Inuit marine
shrinking ice make harder for __ __ to fatten up on seals & becoming __ polar bears; emaciated
in open seas have seen walruses try to climb on their white boats mistaking them from ice floes Alaskan whale hunters
one of many foraging groups in NE Alaska & NW Canada affected by global warming; 8,000 live in small villages spread across sub-Arctic tundra; Mathew Gilbert Gwich'in
main source of Gwich'in subsistence are __ __, which sizes decreased & less healthy due to global warming caribou herds
__ __ is another threat facing Gwich'in of Arctic oil exploration
one of many "cattle cultures" of E Africa; live in semiarid grasslands of Southern Kenya & NE Tanzania Maasai
semiarid grasslands of Southern Kenya & NE Tanzania are characterized by many different __ microenvironments
archaeological anthropologist reviving ancient system of agriculture w/potatoes as central crop, in high plateau region of Andes Mt. Bolivia Alan Kolata
Alan Kolata is working with __ & local farmers agronomists
Alan Kolata's site is located on shore of Lk Titicaca, site of ancient city from 1500 BCE called Tiwanaku
has highest elevation of any commercially navigable lake in the world, & is slightly salty Lk Titicaca
in order to adapt to opportunities & drawback of region, Tiwanaku farmers constructed system of __ agriculture raised-bed
series of platforms; beginning layer of cobblestone; layer of clay; layer of sand/gravel; layer of fertile soil raised-bed agriculture system
the layer of clay in raised-bed agriculture system prevented __ __ from lake from seeping into topsoil salty water
the layer of sand/gravel, raised-bed agriculture system, promoted drainage
the canals surrounding platforms of raised-bed agriculture system, trapped __ __ from intense Andean sunlight radiant energy
the canals surrounding platforms of raised-bed agriculture system provided __ blanket of warm water to protect from evening frosts insulating
the canals surrounding platforms of raised-bed agriculture system also became environment for plants, insects, & other organisms that enriched the soil
after __ __ in 16th century the raised-bed agriculture system fell into disuse with farmers adopting colonizing methods Spanish conquest
good but disturbing example of industrialism American beef industry
for Americans meat is symbolic of manliness
considered iconic American meal meat & potatoes