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Chapter 5 - ANT2410


form of English; used by many Afr. Amer.; among rural/urban working-class backgrounds African-American Vernacular English (AAVE)
African-American Vernacular English (AAVE) is also known as Ebonics
2/more different phones, can be used to make same phoneme in a specific language allophones
unit of meaning that must be associated with another bound morpheme
form of communication among nonhuman primates composed of limited # of sounds tied to specific stimuli in environment call system
study of different ways cultures understand time & use it to communicate chronemics
ability of individuals who speak multiple languages to move seamlessly between them code switching
act of transmitting information communication
science of documenting relationships between languages & grouping them into language families comparative linguistics
notion that, in human language, words are only arbitrarily/conventionally connected to things for which they stand conventionality
first language that is composed of elements of two or more different languages creole
study & analysis of structure & content of particular languages descriptive or structural linguistics
grammatical constructions that deviate from those used by socially dominant group in a society dialect
capacity of all human languages to describe things not happening in the present displacement
unit of meaning that may stand alone as a word free morpheme
statistical technique that linguists have developed to estimate date of separation of related languages glottochronology
analysis and study of touch haptics
system of writing designed to represent all sounds used in different languages of the world International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
study of body position, movement, facial expressions, & gaze kinesics
total stock of words in a language lexicon
smallest unit of language that has a meaning morpheme
system for creating words from sounds morphology
sound made by humans & used in any language phone
smallest significant unit of sound in a language phoneme
a __ system is the sound system of a language phonemic
sound system of a language phonology
language of contact & trade composed of features of original languages of 2/more societies pidgin
pidgin & creole are __ languages comparative
idea that humans can combine words & sounds into new, meaningful utterances they have never before heard productivity
study of cultural use of interpersonal space proxemics
hypothesis that perceptions & understandings of time, space, & matter are conditioned by structure of a language Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
subsystem of a language that relates words to meaning semantics
specialization within anthropological linguistics that focuses on speech performance sociolinguistics
group of people who share a set of norms & rules for the use of language speech community
form of English spoken by most of the American middle class Standard Spoken American English (SSAE)
part of grammar that has to do w/arrangement of words to form phrases & sentences syntax
basic set of principles, conditions, & rules that underlie all languages universal grammar
smallest part of a sentence that can be said alone & still retain its meaning word
communication in all animal species depends on a consistent set of __ by which individuals convey info signals
communication signals are channeled through visual, olfactory, auditory, & tactile senses
uses stereotyped & patterned movements to communicate info about direction & distance of target in relation to base scout honeybee
caw as a signal of danger crow
chirp when they are ready to mate crickets
have "signature whistles" that enable them to identify each other as individuals dolphins
capable of creating complex thought patterns & experiences in words human language
human language is distinct from other animal communication systems in conventionality, productivity, & displacement
productive capacity for human language is sometimes called openness
among nonhuman animals communication is generally about the __ & the __ present; particular
human language __, making some objects & events as similar & others as dissimilar categorizes
complex human behavior patterns could not exist without the __ __ of human language symbolizing capacity
human language reflects the particular character of our adaptation
increases in sophistication of communication led to increases in the complexity of culture
1970s suggested that language evolved by blending & duality of patterning Charles Hockett
combining two words to make a third word (i.e. breakfast + lunch = brunch) blending
combing sound units that compose breakfast & lunch to make great many different new words, i.e. bench, bunch, chest, fun, less, lust, etc. duality of patterning
2 million yrs ago w/emergence of genus Homo; 200,000 yrs ago w/earliest Homo sapiens; 50,000 yrs ago w/human tool-making & symbolic expression origin of language
unless prevented by total social isolation or physical incapacity, all humans learn a first language as part of childhood developmental process
regardless of language being learned all go through same __, __, & __ of language stages; sequence; speed
visual & auditory areas of brain are directly connected to each other & both are connected w/brain region concerned with touch
in humans the food & air tract are connected
"language instinct" to learn language of the group into which individual is socialized Steven Pinker
among animals instinct for communication means patterns of communication are expression of underlying genetic codes
ordered 2 infants reared where they could hear no human voices in order to learn original language of humankind; Phrygian Egyptian pharaoh Psammetichus
experimented w/ infants reared where they could hear no human voices in order to learn original language of humankind; Hebrew King James IV of Scotland
modern evidence shows that infants reared where they could hear no human voices would not speak any intelligible language
child discovered 1970s locked in attic for 1st 12yrs of life; acquired lrg vocab but never mastered English syntax Genie
there is a __ __ of language development for humans critical period
all children are capable of __ __ before the age of 6 yrs learning language
after puberty is rare for a human to learn to speak a 2nd language with proficiency of native speaker
by age of 6 months old human infants' babbling includes consonant & vowel __ & __ patterns sequences; repetitive
even when children do not understand what they are saying they can speak __ using different parts of speech in correct relation to one another grammatically
universality of process of learning a 1st language as well as underlying similarities that unite all human languages lead to propose universal grammar Noam Chomsky
children learn language by applying unconscious __ grammar to the sounds they hear universal
FORTRAN, Pascal, C, & BASIC are examples of computer language
Chomsky argues that each individual is born with an __ universal grammar, analogous to a __ language instinctive; programming
child "programs" their language by interacting __ with other people verbally
children must learn __ __ about how to use language to participate in society social rules
examined language acquisition among white-middle class Americans, Samoans, & Kaluli of Papua New Guinea Ochs & Schieffelin
spend great deal of time talking w/infants using simplified "baby talk" & encouraging them to speak Americans
rarely talk to their infants, except for occasional rebuke; utterance of young children have no importance Kaluli
talk to children using adult speech, frequently rebuking them; utterance of young children have no importance Samoan
Ochs & Schieffelin found that in all 3 societies children learn to speak at the same __ & same level of __ speed; competence
Ochs & Schieffelin found that in all 3 societies children learn different __ rules social
Ochs & Schieffelin found that process of learning to produce grammatical speech is largely a function of biology
Ochs & Schieffelin found that process of learning to be a member of a speech community is clearly a function of culture
an internal logic & particular relationship among its parts language structure
every language has a structure
descriptive/structural linguistics study language __ from the social context in which speaking takes place separate
the work of descriptive/structural linguistics suggest that structure of language consists of four subsystems
phonology, morphology, syntax & semantics are the __ of descriptive/structural linguistics subsystems
any particular language uses a __ numbers of phones & those are the ones its speakers learn to make & __ small; recognize
__ of sounds are used in different way in different languages combination
set of phones used in particular language is referred to as the __ of the language phonemes
includes at least 6 different phones English phoneme /t/
calculating precise number of phonemes in any language is difficult because different speakers have different accents
most of the __ __ have between 20-40 phonemes world's languages
indigenous language of Brazil with only 11-12 phonemes Mura
"click" languages of S. Africa have over 140 phonemes Khoisan
believed to have between 40-45 phonemes English
there is no relationship between the number of phonemes in a language & number of things that can be said
-s, -un, & -er, are considered __ morphemes bound
giraffe is considered a __ morpheme free
giraffe is an example of a __ __ single-morpheme word
teacher has __ morphemes two
unlocks has __ morphemes three
languages __ in extent to which their words tends to contain only one, several, or many morphemes differ
isolating language; have relatively few morphemes per word, and rules for combining morphemes are fairly simple English & Chinese
agglutinating language; allowing great number of morphemes per word & have highly regular rules for combining them Turkish
synthetic language; words w/great many morphemes & complex, highly irregular rules for combination Mohawk & Inuktitut
translating a single word may require an entire English sentence agglutinating or synthetic languages
description of morphology must specify both __ __ for combination of morphemes & their __ in a particular language general rules; exceptions
languages differ in their __ structures syntactic
in English __ __ is important because it conveys meanings word order
the subject & object of sentence are indicated by word endings rather than word order Latin
when descriptive linguistics analyze the __ __ of a language they establish different classes, or parts of speech for that language syntactic structure
all languages have a __ __ of nouns word class
different languages have different __ of nouns subclasses
different subclasses of nouns are referred to as genders
can apply to verbs, indefinite & definite articles, & adjectives gender classification
gender classification of verbs, indefinite & definite articles, & adjectives must agreed with gender classification of nouns
have neuter subclass of nouns German & Latin
language spoken in E Africa w/16 genders of nouns Kivunjo
Native American language w/only 2 genders that are :living things" & "growing things" Papago
all animate objects, such as people/animals in Papago living things
refer to inanimate objects, such as plants/rocks in Papago growing things
applying the __ __ __ turns meaningless sequences of words into meaningful utterances rules of grammar
lexicons illustrate the relationship between culture & language
lexicons give __ to ways members of a culture understand their physical & social environments clues
variety of words in Hindi, for brother-in-law, reflects fact that women treat members of each of these categories differently
theorizes that language could be best understood by separating it into language & speech Ferdinand de Saussure
langue; arbitrary & abstract system of signs that existed independently of any speaker language
parole; actual performance of language by individual speaker speech
believe one should enter & leave a room as unobtrusively as possible; fear talking about misfortune brings it on Apache
attempts to identify, describe, & understand cultural patterning of different speech events within a speech community sociolinguist
ways in which people speak are highly dependent on __ of their speech context
different cultures have different norms regarding __ speeches political
sociolinguists are interested in way in which speech varies depending on person's position in social __ or __ structure; relationship
in some cultures different __ __ are used depending on whether speaker/hearer are intimate friends, acquaintances on equal footing, or people of different social statuses speech forms
have formal & informal pronouns & conjugations that are not found in English French, German & Spanish
refusal to use the word 'you' to address clergy/aristocracy was an act of political & religious defiance Quakers
all languages are equally sophisticated
all languages serve the needs of their __ equally well speakers
all languages every human being speaks with equal __ sophistication grammatical
in complex stratified societies some speech is considered __ and others are judged __ correct; inferior
in hierarchical societies the __ __ group determines what is "proper" in language most powerful
grammatical construction used by the __ __ in hierarchical societies are considered language social elite
in hierarchical societies, __ from grammatical constructions by the most powerful group are considered dialects deviations
power of the speaker, rather than any __ __ of a speech form determines language's acceptability inherent qualities
defined language as "a dialect with an army & a navy" Max Weinreich
in the US relation of __ __ to social class & power is reflected in the speech of different social classes language usage
noted that elites & working-class people have different vocabularies & pronounce words differently William Labov
forms associated w/higher socioeconomic status are considered proper
forms spoken by those in lower socioeconomic statuses are considered incorrect and stigmatized
found that speakers often vary their vocab & pronunciation in different contexts & that the degree of such variation is related to their social class Labov
Labov found that elites use __ forms of speech privileged
Labov found that the poor use stigmatized __ of speech forms
Labov found that lower-middle class often used __ forms in casual speech but __ forms in careful speech stigmatized; privileged
Labov's study shows that what we say & how we say it are ways of telling people who we are __, or perhaps who we would like to be socially
Appalachian English, Dutchfield Pennsylvania English, Hawaiian Creole, Gullah, & emergent Hispanic Englishes are all considered __ __ of American English stigmatized variants
is simply a variant of Standard English, no better or worse than any other AAVE
Mark Twain, William Faulkner, Toni Morrison, Maya Angelou, George Gershwin, Public Enemy & Run DMC all show the __ __ Ebonics has on American art, literature, speech, & music deep influence
AAVE has deep roots in the __ & __ working-class African-American communities rural; urban
1950s-70s-group of linguists, psychologists & educators argued that African-American children did poorly in school because of general cognitive deficiencies, in which language played a key role cultural deficit theorists
cultural deficit theorists argued that the poor speech of African-American children was due to a __ __ home environment culturally deprived
cultural deficit theorists considered the poor speech of African-American children as coarse, simple, & irrational
cultural deficit theorists proposed that if people could be taught to speak Standard English they would be able to __ __ __, & this would help lift them from poverty think more logically
work of William Labov & others was central to __ arguments of cultural deficit theorists countering
through __ __ __ Labov showed inner-city black speech was no more/less complex, rational or orderly than that of other English speakers analysis of dialogues
Labov showed that AAVE simply __ __ __, many of which were also found in other languages followed different rules
mid-1990s, __ __ __ encouraged teachers to make use of Ebonics in teaching Standard English Oakland School Board
denounced Ebonics as "absurd" N. Carolina legislator
referred to "the Ebonic plague" Atlanta Constitution editorial
AAVE may deliver " formal/informal knowledge as well as local knowledge & wisdom" Marcyliena Morgan
in the dominant cultural system AAVE symbolizes deviance & ignorance
in the dominant cultural system SSAE symbolizes normality & intelligence
those who code switch use each language in the __ that is appropriate to it setting
anthropological approach to studying AAVE allowed linguists to get an accurate appreciation only when they studied it within its own cultural context
believed that languages had a compelling influence on thought Edward Sapir & Benjamin Lee Whorf
"no 2 languages are ever sufficiently similar to be considered as representing the same social reality" Sapir
Sapir & Whorf proposed that we __ the world in certain ways because we __ about the world in certain ways perceive; talk
Sapir & Whorf proposed that cultural ideas & behavioral norms are encoded in language
governments that controlled all the words people used caused people to invent new words or give old ones __ & __ meanings new; ironic
going beyond word choice, Sapir-Whorf argued that grammatical structure of languages compelled their speakers to __ & __ in certain ways think; behave
Whorf claimed because tenses in Hopi language differed from English tenses, Hopi speakers necessarily understood time is different ways than English speakers; sometimes called strong determinism
applied Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis to Navajo; found parallels to linguistic emphasis on motion in many aspects of Navajo culture Harry Hoijer
argued that space is understood differently in English & Korean Bowerman
reported that members of Brazilian tribe have difficulty understanding & recalling numbers for which they have no words Gordon
relationship between language & thought seems both fairly weak & related primarily to __ rather than __ of language vocabulary; structure
Sapir-Whorf hypothesis missed that no one has ever found a meaning in one language that is completely __ to speakers of other languages incomprehensible
men often wear veils & use their position as an important part of nonverbal communication Tuareg of Sahara
Tuareg male lowers his veil only among __ & people of __ social status intimates; lower
avoid use of left hand for eating handling money & many other social interactions because it is considered unclean people in Middle East
where people tend to interact at close distances & touch one another frequently; common in Middle East, India, Mediterranean, & Latin America "contact" cultures
where people tend to interact at greater distance & avoid touching; common in Europe, N America, & Japan "noncontact" cultures
contact culture between equals, but noncontact culture between persons regarded as socially unequal India
in public social relationships the person who touches another is likely to have more power than person who is touched US
divided those into monochronic time (M-time) & those w/polychronic (P-time) time Edward Hall
cultures time perceived as inflexible & people organize their lives according to schedules; US & northern European countries M-time
time is understood as fluid; emphasis on social interaction & activities are not expected to proceed like clockwork; P-time
captures basic truth about cultural variation but fails to account for enormous variability within cultures M/P-time dichotomy
identified three different ranges of personal communicative space Hall
from 1-18"; typical for lovers & very intimate friends intimate distance
from 18"-4'; characterizes relationships among friends personal distance
from 4-12'; common among relative strangers social distance
intimate, personal & social distance are also affected by __, __, __, & __ of individual personality circumstances; culture; gender; aspects
men & women talk at close distances with members of their own sex but at very large distances with members of opposite sex Turkey
virtually all __ __ can have significance body movements
suggested that the job of an ethnographers was learning to tell the winks from twitches Clifford Geertz
it is likely that smiling, & some other facial expressions, are biologically based human universals
often smile to make their guests feel comfortable rather than because they are happy Japanese
1400-1600AD change in sound of English that is called the Great Vowel Shift
since about 1950 some vowel sounds in US cities around Great Lakes have been changing, a process linguists call the northern city shift
the ending of nouns indicated whether they were subjects or objects, making word order within the sentence less important, much like in Latin Old English
most noticeable aspect of language change; easily seen in slang vocabulary
meeting of culture through travel, trade, war, & conquest is a __ __ in linguistic change fundamental force
French words such as 'reason' 'joy' 'mutton' & 'liberty' came to the language after Norman Conquest of England
'cot' 'pajamas' & 'jungle' come from Hindi reflecting the British colonization of India
'gumbo' 'funky' & 'zebra' come from Kongo & reflect the slave trade
'tomato' 'coyote' 'shack' & 'avocado' come from Nahuatl spoken in Mexico & Central America
no one speaks pidgins as a __ language, and __ of pidgins is often limited to words appropriate to sorts of interactions engaged by people speaking it first; vocabulary
when people speak only the language of the dominant power, sometimes the pidgins are lost
unlike pidgins, people do speak creoles as a first language
many creoles were formed when Europe expanded into Asia & the Americas
in colonized countries often the upper class would speak the language of the __ __ & lower classes speak creoles colonizing power
70-90 percent of population speak Creole but almost all governmental & administrative functions are performed in French Haiti
when similarities in language are numerous, regular & basic it is likely that the languages are derived from the same ancestral language
many believed that __ __ change at a predictable rate of 14% per 1000 years core vocabularies
if linguists examined core vocabularies of 2 related language and found they were 28% different they would propose that the languages __ 1000 years ago separated
using techniques from both comparative linguistics & biology argue there was an original language & it had many of the characteristics associated with modern-day African "click" Alec Knight
development of language almost certainly involved specific genetic changes
today 95% of the world's languages are spoken by only 5% of the world's total population
1885 American government forbade use of __ __ in Bureau of Indian Affairs schools Indian languages
although the number of languages in the world has decreased the __ within each language has increased diversity
human ability to create new meanings, new words, & new grammatical structures nature of language
language __ to the needs, interests, & environments of its speakers adapts
had a vocabulary of about 100 words & researcher Irene Pepperberg claimed it could use these words in ways that showed productivity, use of syntax, & understanding of meaning Alex, African Gray parrot
attempted to teach sign language to "Washoe"; claimed after learning 10 signs Washoe spontaneously started to produce new combinations of signs Allen & Beatrice Gardner
taught Kanzi bonobo chimp vocab of about 150 signs; able to arrange into sentence-like strings Sue Savage-Rumbaugh
believed that his attempts to train a chimp did not result in any humanlike language capabilities Terrace
analysis of material from Kanzi concluded that animal probably did not have mental representations of objects or events Seidenberg & Pelitto
the idea that "tomorrow I will try to do better than today" can be expressed in all human languages, but by no other animal
It is easy for children to __ a language until they are six master
studies of ways in which children learn language show that human beings may have an __ __ for learning language & will speak grammatically even if not taught to do so inborn predisposition
in English, bit and pit have __ __, thus /b/ and /p/ are phonemes different meanings
in Jamaica, people use cell phones to ask for gifts in order to create or reinforce link-ups
all the sounds used in the different languages of the world __ __ represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet can be
in some cultures, the speech form used depends on the __ __ __ of the individuals speaking relative social status