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Neuroscience Ch2

soma/somata perikaryon/perikarya spherical, central part of the neuron. filled with cystol
cystol potassium-rich solution, contained in the soma by the cell membrane
cytoplasm everything contained in the cell membrane except for the nucleus
mRNA because DNA never leaves the nucleus, it must send messenger RNA to other parts of the cell, carrying instructions for protein synthesis. DNA gives its info to mRNA in a process called transcription
amino acids building block of protein. 20 different kinds
translation the process by which the mRNA assembles amino acids into proteins, as instructed by DNA
ribosomes transcripted mRNA bind to them, and ribosomes are the intermediary in the translation process: they take raw material in the form of amino acids and manufacture proteins using the blueprint provided by the mRNA. located in rough ER or free floating chains
rough endoplasmic reticulum where mRNA, destined to translate into parts of the membrane or organelles, goes to bind to ribosomes. otherwise destined, it binds with free floating ribosomes, or chains thereof (polyribosomes). rER/membrane connects to neurons ability to process info
mitochondria 1)takes in pyruvic acid and oxygen, which 2) undergoes a complex series of biochemical reactions called the krebs cycle, 3) output of krebs cycle undergoes electron transport chain, a combination of phosphate and ADP, yeilding ATP=ENERGY
afferent sensory signal (sound, touch, vision, etc.), travels from sensory surface (ear, skin, tissue, eye) to brain
efferent motor signal to muscle from brain
Axon tapers out from the soma and sends information (via electrical signals) out (usually). Tapers at the axon hillock, branches at axon collaterals. No rough ER. The thicker the axon, the faster the signal. No ribosomes.
Axon terminal end of the axon, where it comes into contact with other neurons. Making such contact is called innervation. 1) no microtubules 2) tiny bubbles called synaptic vesicles 3) surface facing synapse has dense protein 4) lots of mitochondria=high energy demand
Axoplasmic transport no ribosomes (protein makers) in axon? No prob, we can ship protein to you! Transport comes in both directions. Anterograde is down to end of axon, where material is enclosed in vesicles and “walked down” w/kinesin. Retrograde trans, opposite, w/dynein
Cytoskeleton scaffolding of neuron, composed of microtubules, neurofilament, microfilament.
Dendrite receives info (usually) via neurotransmitters converted to electrical signals.
Pyramidal neurons w/dendrites shaped like pyramids
Stellate neurons w/dendrites shaped like stars
Aspinous neurons w/dendrites w/o spines (lumpy warts on dendrite)
Interneurons neurons that connect to other neurons (99%)
golgi type 1 neurons w/long axons that extend from one part of the brain to another (also: projection neurons)
Golgi type 2 neurons w/short axons
Acetylcholine neurotransmitter found in motor neurons which control voluntary movements. Thus such neurons called cholinergic
Astrocytes glia which fill in spaces between neurons (most numerous). As per usual w/glia, boringly do maintenance like regulating chemical makeup of brain fluid and cleaning up some neurotransmitters on the synaptic clefts
Myelin sheath fatty covering of axons, with tiny breaks in it called Nodes of Ranvier. Made and maintained by glia: oligodendroglial and Schwann cells
golgi apparatus little explained... one important fxn is the sorting of certain proteins that are destined for delivery to diff parts of the neuron
Created by: jwdink