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Doing Cult. Anthr.

Chapter 3 - ANT2410

ethnography that gives priority to informants on the topic, methodology, and written results of research collaborative anthropology
notion that cultures should be analyzed with reference to their own histories and culture traits understood in terms of the cultural whole, rather than according to the values of another culture cultural relativism
feelings of alienation and helplessness that result from rapid immersion in a new and different culture culture shock
examining society using concepts, categories, and distinctions that are meaningful to members of that culture emic
anthropology that includes political action as a major goal of fieldwork engaged anthropology
judging other cultures from the perspective of one’s own culture; notion that one’s own culture is more beautiful, rational, and nearer to perfection than any other ethnocentrism
major research tool of cultural anthropology; includes both fieldwork among people in society and the written results of fieldwork ethnography
attempt to find general principles or laws that govern cultural phenomena ethnology
examining societies using concepts, categories, and rules derived from science; an outsider’s perspective, which produces analyses that members of the society being studied may not find meaningful etic
firsthand, systematic exploration of a society; involves living with a group of people & participating in/observing their behavior fieldwork
ethnographic database that includes descriptions of more than 300 cultures and is used for cross-cultural research Human Relations Area Files (HRAF)
person from whom an anthropologist gathers data informant
requirement that participants in anthropological studies should understand the ways in which their participation and the release of the research data are likely to affect them informed consent
committee organized by a university/other research institution that approves, monitors, & reviews all research that involves human subjects institutional review board (IRB)
anthropologist who does fieldwork in his or her own culture native anthropologist
fieldwork technique that involves gathering cultural data by observing people’s behavior and participating in their lives participant observation
theoretical perspective focusing on issues of power & voice; suggests anthropological accounts are partial truths reflecting background, training, and social position of their authors postmodernism
in place of artificially controlled laboratories, anthropologists rely on __ & __ __ ethnography; cross-cultural comparison
used as a basis for cross-cultural comparison ethnographies
ethnographic data from different societies analyzed to build/test hypotheses about general/universal social & cultural processes cross-cultural comparison
fieldwork is a cultural anthropologists root for data & theory
1st scholars who termed themselves anthropologists worked in the 2nd 1/2 of 19th century
saw themselves as compilers & analysts of ethnographic accounts, rather than field researchers Tylor & Morgan
traveled widely in Mexico; wrote that his theoretical perspective was so well-established that he could ignore any data that did not fit Sir Edward Burnett Tylor
traveled widely in western US Louis Henry Morgan
critics referred to Tylor & Morgan as armchair anthropologists
Tylor & Morgan were deeply influenced by evolutionary theories of Darwin & Spencer
19th century anthropologists sometimes referred to __ __ as living fossils simpler societies
term living fossils was borrowed from biology & paleontology
currently existing plants/animals that closely resemble their fossil ancestors biology living fossil
societies believed to be unchanged for thousands of years anthropologist living fossil
simple, small-scale societies were classified as savages
various chiefdoms on scale usually classified as barbarians
scale ended with societies such as current day classified as civilization
explorers interest in playing up the most exotic aspects of the society being described in order to increase fame
colonial officials & missionaries interest in playing up the most exotic aspects of the society being described in order to show the native more in need of government or salvation
societies that early anthropologists believed were living fossils were often of recent origin
evolutionists were so sure they had properly formulated the general evolutionary history they often twisted & contorted data to fit their theories
most important critic of evolutionism; 1st professor of anthropology at Columbia University; ideas had profound development of anthropology in US Franz Boas
Boas' studies as well as experiences among the Inuit convinced him that __ anthropology was intellectually flawed & morally defective evolutionary
argued that anthropologists should not be mere collectors of tales & spinners of theories, but rather should devote themselves to fieldwork, to objective data collecting Boas
Boas' style of fieldwork became known as __ __ & has been the hallmark of American anthropology participant observation
one of Boas' core beliefs was that cultures are byproducts of their own history
evolutionist's incorrectly assumed that the more a culture's value approached those of Europeans, the more evolved it was
Boas & his followers maintained that anthropologists must __ __ in order to understand the logic & dynamics of other cultures suspend judgment
Boas argued that all human beings have an equal capacity for __ culture
Boas argued that all human __ might be considered morally right or wrong actions
Boas argued that no culture was more evolved or of __ __ than another greater value
widely used by Americans who argued for equality of men & women, rights of African Americans, immigrants & Native Americans Boas, Benedict & Mead
mounted (2) expeditions to Torres Straits; late 19th century British anthropologist Alfred Cort Haddon
Haddon was originally a biologist but during his travels turned his interest to ethnography
became professors at Cambridge & London School of Economics where they trained the next generation of British Commonwealth anthropologists Haddon & colleagues
1 of most prominent student of Torres Strait scholars; spent years w/Trobriand Islanders; forcefully promoted idea that native cultures were logical & rational Bronislaw Malinowski
argued that magic was like science it had "definite aim & governed by theory" Malinowski
focused on understanding cultures w/respect to their context & history Boas & students
emphasized notion of function: contribution made by social practices & institutions to maintenance & stability of society Malinowski & students
fundamental insights & principles remain basic to current-day anthropology Malinowski & Boas
only by living with people & engaging in their activities can we begin to understand the interrelated pattern of culture
the constant attempt to __ in another culture gives anthropologists a depth of understanding that is impossible to achieve in any other way participate
limitation of participant observation is that anthropologists necessarily work with limited numbers of individuals
originally started to review medical research, but in most places have expanded their scope of operation to include all research involving living people IRBs
personal history, geographical preferences, political stability, cost, physical danger, & connections are all decisions about which communities anthropologists investigate
most critical aspect of choosing anthropological location has to do with particular __ __ of the anthropologist research questions
in early 20th century anthropologists studying groups/societies attempted to write __ __ of societies complete descriptions
modern-day anthropologists feel societies are so __ they cannot be described in a __ __ complex; single work
because societies' connections are so __ today they must be seen in __ & __ contexts interconnected; regional; global
focus on specific situations, individuals, events & frequently on culture change current ethnographies
ethnography describes Native Americans & casino gambling Darian-Smith 2004
ethnography describes relationship between indigenous people & national parks Igoe 2004
ethnography describes ways in which immigrant communities cope with new customs & values Stepick 1998
questions anthropologists ask & conditions & locations where they can be answered have become more specific
anthropologists spend a great deal of time reading the existing research on their subject once they have identified an area of general interest
by anthropologists spending time reading the existing research on their subject they can design projects that help to close the gaps in existing knowledge
anthropologists arriving in new cultures are in many ways like children
learning language, custom, social organizations are the fundamental grounding knowledge that is required to get past culture shock
the aim of __ research is to enable cultural outsiders to gain a sense of what it might be like to be a member of the culture emic
may produce conclusions that conflict with the ways in which people understand their own culture etic analysis
judged by the usefulness of hypothesis it generates & degree to which it accurately describes behavior etic research
anthropologists propose hypothesis & collect empirical data to determine whether/not hypothesis can be supported research model from natural sciences
analyzed pregnancy beliefs among women of African descent in 3 communities in US Wendy Phillips 2005
recently studies important role of motorbikes in current-day urban Vietnam Allison Truitt 2008
some anthropological research is more highly interpretive & uses techniques from study of history & literature
emphasize collaborative nature of fieldwork & suggest that people who work w/anthropologists are active & empowered; informants respondents, interlocutors, & consultants
sometimes anthropologists work with __ __ who they believe are well informed & eager to talk with them key informants
sometimes anthropologists use __ __ to chose their consultants, so they may construct statistical models random sampling
the best way to understand difference between what people say they do, feel or think & what they actually do participation
no one, including an anthropologist, can provide a fully __ & __ portrait of a culture accurate; unbiased
participation forces researcher to think more deeply about culture, giving greater __ & __ to info obtained through interviews & observation context; depth
inventories & questionnaires; open-ended questions; structured questions are all different interview techniques
includes mapping, photography, careful silent observation of range of activities, measurements of various kinds of production, & apprenticeships are examples of anthropological data gathering
depends on questions being asked & theoretical perspective of researcher analysis of data
generally comes in form of extensive field notes, tape recordings, & photographs anthropological data
field notes have to be indexed
tape recording have to be transcribed
data has to be entered into spreadsheets
successful anthropologists often spend more time working with their __ than they did __ it data; collecting
some level of __ has always been implicit in anthropology comparison
one goal of the __ was to use their research to cause Europeans & Americans to compare their own society w/societies anthropologists described Boasians
through comparison anthropologists hope people will think about their own societies in a new light & help change them for the better
ethnology was more explicitly important to __ & __ anthropologists British; European
ethnologies compared societies in the hope of deriving __ __ of social organization & behavior general principles
began to develop systematic way of organizing, tabulating, & correlating info on large number of societies; project called Descriptive Sociology Herbert Spencer 1860s
brought Spencer's ideas about cross-cultural comparison to US Sumner, Keller & Murdock
in late 1930s, created large, indexed ethnographic database at Yale University called Cross Cultural Survey Murdock & Keller
in late 1940s Cross Cultural Survey was expanded to include other universities & name changed to HRAF
HRAF is an attempt to facilitate __ __, providing ethnographic reports & other sources on 710 numbered subject categories cross-cultural analysis
techniques of clothing manufacture is 294 in HRAF
traditional friendships & rivalries within communities is 628 in HRAF
using HRAF researcher can find info on a wide range of __ & __ societies current; historical
critics of HRAF charge that it takes __ __ out of context & corrupts it cultural data
because works indexed in HRAF are written from different perspectives, for different purposes, & in different eras, indexing is often inconsistent or inappropriate
due to rise of divorce in 1950s __ used HRAF to show almost all societies had some form of divorce & US rate was lower than average Murdock
Murdock's use of HRAF allowed people to think about divorce in a comparative context
used HRAF to consider issue of family violence in 1989 Levinson
used HRAF to consider issue of corporal punishment of children in 2005 Ember & Ember
used HRAF to consider issue of patterns if cultural evolution in 2004 Peregrine, Ember & Ember
used HRAF to consider issue of adolescent gender & sexuality in 1991 Schlegel & Barry
cross-cultural research can be done by a(n) __ __ working in 2/more locations single investigator
cross-cultural research can be done by a(n) __ __ working in multiple locations investigative team
examples of cross-cultural researcher done by a team/single investigator includes studies of violence in 2000 by Aijmer & Abbink
examples of cross-cultural researcher done by a team/single investigator includes studies of economics in 2006/2004 by Durrenberger & Marti/Henrich et al
examples of cross-cultural researcher done by a team/single investigator includes studies of language & cognition in 2003 by Wierzbicka
rich area of cross-cultural research is medical anthropology
delivery of effective medical services to all members of different cultures, through knowledge of ways different groups understand diseases, is a critical area of interest to applied medical anthropologists
medical anthropologists need to know how people in different cultures understand the __, __ & __ for different diseases causes; symptoms; cures
in 2007 recently investigated migraine headache symptoms among 3 different groups of Native Americans (Tzeltal Maya/Mexico, Kamayurá/Brazil, Uru-Chipaya/Bolivia) Carod-Artal & Vásquez-Cabrera
in study by Carod-Artal & Vásquez-Cabrera they found that the understanding of origin of migraines & how to treat them __ __ within the 3 groups & when compared to our society, although all had own named syndromes w/symptoms matching migraines greatly differed
study of preschools in China, Japan & US to examine preschools comparatively, but also 3 different cultures through the focus link w/preschools & larger cultural/social concerns/change Tobin, Wu, & Davidson 1989
one reason anthropologists had focused primarily on social roles, activities, & beliefs of men was in many societies men & women live quite __ lives, with little access to the women segregated
one reason anthropologists had focused primarily on social roles, activities, & beliefs of men because they tended to assume men's activities were __ & therefore more __ political; important
one reason anthropologists had focused primarily on social roles, activities, & beliefs of men because men's activities were far more __ than that of the women public
result of taking the role's of men more seriously than the women was a __ __ in anthropological data & understandings systematic bias
frequently implicit in ethnologies, were assumptions that men spoke for all of society making cultures appear more __ than they actually were harmonious
urged anthropologists to examine ways they understood fieldwork & writing ethnographies; demanded they become sensitive to issues of history & power postmodernists
postmodernists claim fieldworkers cannot discover & describe an __ reality because such a thing does not exist objective
postmodernists challenged ethnographer's role in __ culture interpreting
postmodernists claimed that anthropological ethnographies were just one story about __ __ experienced reality
postmodernists claimed that the ethnographer's voice was only __ __ __ possible representations one of many
in 1978, was a critical moment in opening anthropology to postmodern ideas Orientalism - Edward Said
refers to the colonial British name for what is now called the Middle East "orient" in Said's title
Said argued that European art, drama & anthropology/social sciences gave simplified, distorted & romanticized view of Middle Eastern cultures, portraying them as timeless societies full of savagery & exotic wonder
the lives of Middle Eastern women were misunderstood due to European's fascination with __ & __ of Middle Eastern cultures gender; sexuality
during 1990s reflection on the __ of fieldwork & anthropological __ became focus of writing in anthropology nature; enterprise
influenced by the work of Said encouraged anthropologists to write about their __ __ of living in other cultures, rather than about them own experience
almost all anthropologists today agreed that ethnographers need to __ __ on their positions as observers reflect critically
almost all anthropologists today agreed that ethnographers need to be aware of __ & __ consequences of their work moral; political
most ethnographies now include info about __ under which fieldwork was carried out conditions
most ethnographies now include info about __ of the relationships between anthropologists & consultants nature
process of working closely w/other people & in a sense describes all anthropological research collaboration
consult w/their subjects about shaping their studies & writing their reports; attempt to displace anthropologist as sole author rep. a group, turning research into joint project collaborative anthropologists
important contribution to collaborative, engaged anthropology James Spradley
classic ethnography by Spradley, aimed at getting public to understand & help the homeless alcoholics who were subjects of book You Owe Yourself a Drunk 1970
inspired by Spradley; done several collaborative projects; work w/NA to develop ethnology of experience of drug addition & recovery that could be given to addicts considering to join NA Erik Lassiter
constructed collaborative project w/Kiowa Indians in OK; ethnography of Kiowa song; giving highest priority to representing Kiowa cultural consultants as they wished to be represented Lassiter
for Lassiter collaborative ethnography is not just __ comments of cultural consultants, but __ integrating these comments back into the text eliciting ; integrating
move from describing & analyzing communities they study to actively promoting their interests & welfare engaged anthropologists
many anthropologists believe that for anthropology to be relevant & meaningful it must be involved in political & social efforts to improve life chances for people in community
studies social services for homeless people; move attention on causes to the center of American culture & politics Vincent Lyon-Callo
Lyon-Callo believes most homelessness results from cultural/political philosophy that embraces the free market & private initiative as solution to social problems
Lyon-Callo argues that most Americans have a __ __ orientation to homelessness "social services"
increasing unemployment, declining relative wages & exploitation of workers are the __ __ that Lyon-Callo mentions systematic inequalities
Lyon-Callo suggests that __ __ can challenge routine understandings, raise new questions, & get people thinking in new ways anthropological analysis
collaborative anthropology may give __ & __ to one element of a community over another voice; legitimacy
in wake of postmodernism, anthropologists have acknowledged objectivity & subjectivity are problematic concepts
W. Lloyd Warner, Solon T. Kimball, Margaret Mead, Zora Neale Hurston, & Hortense Powdermaker were all American anthropologists who wrote about American culture
freedom fighter, 1President of Kenya, wrote about Gikuyu of Kenya 1938 Jomo Kenyatta
Chinese anthropologists who wrote extensively on Chinese society Francis Hsu
in recent years __ anthropologists have become more common native
emphasis on more reflective fieldwork & ethnography affects those anthropologists, in particular, who study their own culture
challenge for native anthropologists is to see their culture as an outsider would see it
it may be easier to remain culturally relativistic when we confront patterns in other cultures than when confront problematic situations such as child neglect, corporate greed or armed conflict in our own Margaret Mead
contrasted her work w/ Huichol of northern Mexico in 1974 with her work among elderly Jewish people living in California in 1978; died at age 49 of cancer Barbara Myerhoff
"an act of imagination, a means for discovering what is not & will never be" Myerhoff
being a native in one identity does not make one a native in all one's identities Delmos Jones
anthropologists 1st ethical obligation is to people being studied
informed consent critical aspect of anthropological ethics
obtaining informed consent requires the anthropologists to take part in ongoing & dynamic discussion w/ their consultants about the __ of the study as well as the __ & __ of participation nature; risk; benefits
anthropologists should conduct themselves in ways the do not endanger the research __ or lives of other anthropologists prospects
anthropologists who violate the mores/ethics of communities in which they work or align themselves w/governments/military may endanger lives & any __ __ by other anthropologists future contact
anthropologists are obligated to publish their findings in forms that are available to other anthropologists & general public
anthropologists acknowledge that certain forms of __ are acceptable, & on occasion even required secrecy
mid 1960s Project Camelot was attempt by Army & Dept. of Defense to enlist anthropologists & other social scientists in achieving American foreign policy goals
purpose was to create model for predicting civil wars but was also implicated in using military & cultural means to fight insurgency movements & prop up friendly governments Project Camelot
Project Camelot let to the first official statement on __ __ in 1971 anthropological ethics
anthropologists work at __ __ & __ providing anthropological training for officers or analyses of the culture of the military itself military colleges; bases
anthropologist work on the ground collecting data in zones of active conflict
most anthropologists & social scientists working for the military work for a program called Human Terrain Systems (HTS)
soldiers all of ranks who understand dynamics of culture, & structure/distribution of power within a society are liable to be more successful & __ __ than those who do not less destructive
military's interest in __ __ is related to conquest, domination, & control of other populations anthropological knowledge
noted that although anthropologists working in universities & military face similar issues, at least in theory anthropologists in universities seek knowledge for its own sake instead of the military who seeks it victory, security, & defense David Price
in early 2007 Pentagon employed __ __ to help in its combat brigades HTS teams
recent AAA report notes that __ __ __ raises concerns about obligations to those whom anthropologists study engagement with military
recent AAA report notes that engagement with military raises concerns about __ for the discipline, one's own colleagues, & broader academic community perils
recent AAA report notes that engagement with military raises concerns about issues of __ & __ secrecy; transparency
primary concern of anthropologists working in HTS must be the safety, security, & goals of their __ instead of those outlines in __ __ employers; anthropological ethics
immigration, inexpensive communications, & relatively cheap airfare have altered the world & the nature of the anthropologist's job
almost all ethnographers must take into account the interaction of these local units with larger social structures, economies, & cultures
must often use questionnaires, social surveys, archival material, government documents, & court records in addition to participant observation contemporary ethnographers
1960/70s drug addict subculture drew anthropologists into the world of substance abuse & drug addiction
ethnography was a particularly suitable __ for studying street drug scenes & participants methodology
anthropologists have introduced models that aim at connecting individual drug users & sellers w/ larger, structural features of society & economy
demonstrated that patterns of drug-related violence vary as result of ways in which political decisions & economic processes impact on neighborhoods, families & kinship networks Hamid 1990s
Hamid's work showed that drug __ & __ are integrated w/larger economic/political issues, particularly those affecting transformation of minority neighborhoods use; distribution
found residents of Southside view drugs quite differently than both the law & cultural norms of middle-class America Kojo Dei
Southside residents define a "drug addict" as someone who __ __ because of their drug use cannot function
social services & medical professional define drug addict as physical __ __ withdrawal symptoms
studying drug use in Hartford, CT since 1980s; important contributions to AIDS preventing education & effectiveness of needle-exchange programs in preventing AIDS Merrill Singer
study found that more than 80% of drug users interviewed mixed alcohol w/other drugs & did so for variety of reasons Singer, Salaheen, Mirhej, & Santelice 2005
researchers have found that alcohol was both a gateway drug & gateway-back
1990 study of dangers to anthropologists in the field identified __, __, & __ __ as the 3 greatest risks anthropologists face malaria; hepatitis; vehicle crashes
1990 study of dangers to anthropologists in the field identified high rate of encounters with __, __, & __ __ violence; criminality; political instability
1990 study of dangers to anthropologists in the field identified at least __ of anthropologists experienced "criminal interpersonal hazards" 42%
1990 study of dangers to anthropologists in the field identified __ of anthropologists reports living through political turmoil such as war, revolution, & rioting 22%
anthropologists of the past worked in areas that were artificially peaceful
anthropologists of the past worked in areas that were controlled by __ __ or were American protectorates colonial governments
writes that informants & anthropologists inevitably share experienced & that in her case these included being frightened, confused, & disoriented, & suffering from general loss of perspective Monique Skidmore
worked on streets of Port-au-Prince Haiti called Kosovo; writes that doing ethnography of violence can make critical contribution to anthropological theory Kovats-Bernat
worked in Sierra Leone during UN civil war Danny Hoffman
in reality it is often the subjects of research who must protect the researcher
writes "Our privileged position, specialized training, & unique skills...carry with them specific ethical obligations to promote the well-being of people who are collaborators in our anthropological research & in production of anthropological knowledge Laura R Graham
points our standing for human rights is often a matter of life & death Ida Nicholaisen