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WGU Ethics Terms II


The Divine Command Theory The metaethical theory that an act is obligatory if and only if, and because, it is commanded by God. Confuted by the "Euthyphro dilemma" which asks, "is an action morally good because God commands it, or does God command it because it is morally good?"
The Theory of Natural Law The highest standards for judging right and wrong are not the customs and laws of any particular society, but the universal laws of human nature, as these are known by reason. Everything happens for a reason.
Hinduism The major religion of India. Unites the worship of many gods with a belief in a single divine reality. A family of beliefs. Suggests reincarnation will provide an escape from human misery; we are meant to live according to our dharma (role).
India Subcontinent shped like a diamond, isolated. Its relative location helped create a culture that is rare and facinating. Warm climate promotes religious values in such as minimal material goods. Hinduism is India's major religion.
Bhagavad-Gita "divine song" or "song of the Divine One" part of a long epic poem called the Mahabharata. Action & adherance to duty are thought of as a spiritual path. "The wise see knowledge and action as one."
Vishnu In the Vedas, he is a god associated with the sun. Represents force of preservation in the universe. Thought of as light and warmth that destoys darkness. Highly worshiped with 10 avatars (incarnations) including Buddha, Rama & Krishna.
Krishna A Hindu deity and incarnation of Vishnu, began as an object of fertility worship. Krishna is in the epic Mahabharata. Krishna is often depicted as a young boy playing the flute.
Shiva The third of the Trimurti & the god linked with destruction. A major Hindu deity seen as the Supreme Being.
Ramayana The ancient sanskit epic whose stories inspired dance and art. In the Ramayana is the historical figure Rama whose wife is Sita is abducted. He returns her with the help of Hanuman, the leader of the monkeys.
Caste system A division of society into social classes that are created by birth or occupation. Five main castes (highest to lowest): Priests (Brahmins), Warrior-nobles (Kshatriya), Merchants (Vaishya), Peasant (Shudra), & Untouchables (Dalit).
Varna The division of Hindu society into four social classes (not to be confused with the caste system in India). The 4 varnas: brahmins: scholars/clergy; kshatriyas: warriors/admin.; shudras: laborers; vaishyas: agriculturists/artisans/merchants.
Vedas The ancient scriptures of India. Give information about Gods and worship. 4 basic texts constitute Vedas. The Vedas end with later works called the Upanishads - that express philosphical and religious ideas.
Karma What determines the direction (to a higher or lower form - animal, insect, plant, demigod, etc) of rebirth is Karma - the moral law of cause & effect. Every action has a moral consequence.
Artha A Sanskrit term meaning "purpose, cause, motive, meaning, notion". In Hinduism, artha is one of the 4 goals of life, known as purusharthas. The 2nd of the 4, the other 3 being dharma, kama and moksha.
Kama is translated from Sanskrit as pleasure, sensual gratification, sexual fulfillment, pleasure of the senses, desire, eros, or the aesthetic enjoyment of life. In Hinduism, kāma is regarded as the 3rd of the 4, the others being dharma, artha and moksha.
Dharma One's righteous duty - a Hindu's dharma is affected by the person's age, class, occupation, and gender.
Moksha Meaning 'freedom' or 'liberation' - 'to be released'. In the Upanishads, it's the ultimate human goal - liberation from Saṃsāra, the cycle of reincarnation.
Classical Chinese - Confucianism
Five Great Relationships ?
Classical Chinese - Daoism ?
Dao “The Way” ?
Dao de Jing (Tao Te Ching) ?
Jainism ?
Ahimsa ?
Buddhism Buddhism, founded by the Buddha, which teaches the path to enlightenment by stressing the minimization of suffering and the attainment of inner peace.
Siddhartha – India ?
The Buddha Meaning the "awakened one", the Buddha was born Siddhartha Guatama, the son of a prince.
The Four Noble truths The first teachings of Gautama Buddha after attaining Nirvana. 1. To live is to suffer. 2. Suffering comes from desire 3. To end suffering, end desire 4. Release from suffering is possible, and can be attained by following the Noble Eightfold Path.
Mahayana sutras ?
Eight Fold Path The eight "steps" on the path to reach nirvana in Buddhism.
Nirvana The release from suffering and rebirth that brings inner peace.
Meditation Also known as dhyana; focusing of the mind; sometimes, stages of trance.
Enlightenment A state of profound understanding, or awakening in Buddhism.
Reincarnation ?
Gandhianism ?
Mahatma Gandhi ?
Practical Wisdom and passive restraint ?
Monotheistic ?
Scripture ?
Judaism ?
Torah ?
Kabbalah ?
Halakhah ?
Christianity ?
The Ten Commandments ?
Golden Rule ?
Richard Niebuhr and his Christ In Culture Theory ?
Islam ?
Prophet Muhammad (d. 632) ?
Qur’an ?
Five Pillars ?
Sharia ?
Shi’a tradition ?
Sunni tradition ?
Rig Veda Most important of the Vedas. Means "hymn knowledge" - collection of more than a thousand chants to the Aryan gods.
Yajur Veda One of the Vedas. Means "ceremonial knowledge". Contains matter for recitation during sacrafice
Sama Veda One of the Vedas. Means "chant knowledge". Is the handbook of musical elaborations of Vedic chants.
Atharva Veda One of the Vedas. Means "knowledge from [the teacher] Atharva"
Upanishads In Hinduism, they followed the four Vedas and express philosphical and religious ideas that arose in introspective and meditative traditions. Comprised of about 100 written works. Most important notions are Brahman, Atman, maya, karma, samsara & moksha.
Trimurti In Hinduism, three gods that are linked together (triple form) and are an important part of the devotional and artistic life of Hinduism. They consist of Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva and represent the three forces of creation, preservation, and destruction.
Brahma The god that represents the creative force that made the Universe. Special patron to the preistly class. Often depicted sitting on a throne, w/ 4 faces looking in each of the 4 directions, 8 arms each holding symbols of power. Companion animal=white goose
Religion An organized system of beliefs regarding the spiritual or metaphysical world, generally offering a moral code and a philosophy of life.
Created by: slucas79