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Physiology Chapter 1

The Study of Body Functions

The study of how the body works to maintain life is called what? Physiology
The study of how physiological processes are aletered in disease or injury is called what? Pathophysiology
Maintainence of a state of "dynamic constancy" in which conditions are stabilized above and below a physiological set point describes what? Homeostasis
In a negative feed back loop when a sensor detects a deviation from a particular set point, it must relay this information where? Integrating center
In a negative feedback loop the body must contain what in order to detect deviations from a set point? Sensors
In a negative feedback loop the effectors are generally what part of the body? Muscles or glands
Homeostasis is maintained by two general categories of regulatory mechanisms Intrinsic and extrinsic
What regulatory mechanisms are built in to the organs being regulated? Intrinsic
What regulatory mechanism is the regulation of an organ by the nervous and endocrine systems? Extrinsic
What regulatory mechanism comes from outside of the organ? Extrinsic
Body temperature is controlled by antagonistic effects of sweating and shivering and is an example of what regulatory mechanism? Extrinsic
What type of feedback is rare because it amplifies changes? Positive feedback
The production of blood clots is the result of what type of feedback? Positive feedback
In females, what type of feedback is used to create the LH surge that causes ovulation? Positive feedback
What feedback controls blood pressure? Negative feedback
What feedback has hormonal control of blood glucose? Negative feedback
Cells that have similar functions are grouped into categories called what? Tissues
What are the 4 major types of tissues? Muscle, nervous, epithelial and connective tissues
What are the 3 types of muscle tissues? Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth
What is the only type of voluntary muscle tissue? Skeletal
What type of muscle tissue is multinucleated? Skeletal muscle tissue
What type of muscle tissue are short, striated and involuntary? Cardiac Muscle tissue
What type of muscle tissue have intercalated discs between the cells that provide mechanical and electrical interconnections? Cardiac
What type of muscle tissue if found in the digestive tract, blood vessels, bronchioles, and the ducts of the urinary and reproductive systems? Smooth muscles tissue
What type of tissues consists of neurons and supporting or glial cells? Nervous tissue
What cells provide physical and functional support for neurons? Supporting or glial cells
What is a single, long extension off the cell body that conducts nerve impulses to other cells called? Axon
What part of the nervous tissue are highly branched extension off the cell body that receive inputs from other neurons? Dendrites
What are nerve cells called? Neurons
Epithelial tissue consists of cells that form what 2 things? Membranes and glands
What are 2 categories of glands? Endocrine and exocrine glands
What glands secrete chemicals through a duct that leads to the outside of a memebrane, and thus to the outside of a body surface? Exocrine
What glands secrete chemicals called hormones into the blood? Endocrine
What type of tissues lines and covers body surfaces? Epithelial tissue
What are the 3 types of epithelial tissues? Squamous, columnar, and cuboidal
Epithelial membranes that are only one cell layer thick are known as what? Simple membranes
Epithelial membranes that are composed of more than one layer are known as what? Stratified membranes
What type of membranes cover all body surfaces and line the cavity (lumen) of every hollow organ? Epithelial membranes
What epithelial lining is a nonkeratinized membrane and all layers consist of living cells? Esophagus and vagina
What organ contains a keratinized or cornified membrane? Skin
What type of epithelial cells are found in the respiratory passages and fallopian tubes? Ciliated columnar epithelial cells
What joins epithelial cells together to increase strenth and create a barrier? Junctional complexes
Epithelial membranes are attached to the underlying connective tissue by a layer of proteins and polysaccharides known as what? Basement membrane
What glands are derived from cells of epithelial membranes? Exocrine Glands
The nervous tissues consists of what 3 types of cells? Neurons, supporting, and glial cells
What is the secretion of the exocrine glands controlled by? myoepithelial cells
What are the exocrine ducts called? Simple tubes or clusters called acini
Connective tissue has lots of extracellular material deposited in the spaces between its cells called what? Matrix
What are the 4 types of connective tissues? Connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone and blood
What are the 2 types of connective tissue proper? Loose connective tissue and dense regular connective tissue
What organs in the body have exocrine as well as endocrine glands? Pancreas and liver
All of the glands that secrete into the digestive tract are all what type of gland? Exocrine
What is another name for loose connective tissue? Areolar connective tissue
Adipose tissue is a specialized type of what tissue? Loose connective tissue
What connective tissue is composed of collagen (fibrous proteins), tissue fluid, and adipose? Loose connective tissue
What type of connective tissue consists of cells, called chondrocytes, surrounded by a semisolid ground substance that imparts elastic properties to the tissue? Cartilage
What type of connective tissue is a type of supportive and protective tissue commonly called "gistle"? Cartilage
What type of connective tissue is the precursor to many bones that develop in the fetus and persists at the articular surfaces on the bones at all movable joints in adults? Cartilage
What connective tissue is formed as concentric layers of calcified material? Bone
What are bone forming cells called? Osteoblasts
What are trapped, inactive osteoblasts? Osteocytes
What is the bone reabsorbing cells called? Osteoclasts
What is the largest organ of the body and has an outer later of protective cornified epidermis? Skin
What are the 3 layers of the skin? Epidermis, dermis, and the hypodermis
What layer of the skin contains fat? Hypodermis
What layer of the skin is the inner most layer? Hypodermis
What is the middle layer of skin and contains connective tissue, glands, blood vessels, and nerves? Dermis
Extracellular body fluid compartments are composed of what 2 things? Blood plasma and interstitial fluid or tissue fluid
What are the 2 major parts or compartments that tissues, organs, and systems are divided into? Intracellular and extracellular compartments
Body fluid compartments consist primarily of what? Water
The extracellular compartment is subdivided into what 2 parts? Blood plasma and the tissue fluid or interstitial fluid
Where is the integrating center found? Brain or spinal cord or hormones
What is the purpose of the integrating center? To determine how the body is to respond to a deviation from the set point
Created by: seshelby62