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Microbiolog Quiz 3

Two examples of toxins formed in foods 1) clostridium botulsm 2) S. aureus enterotoxin don't need organism in these to get disease.
Two examples of toxin formed in gut 1) infant botulism (from honey) 2) cholera toxin-vibrio cholera.
Which clostridia disease is invasive? Clostridium perfringens (the others are all non-invasive).
Which clostridia causes flaccid paralysis? botulism-block acetylcholine.
Which clostridia causes spastic paralysis? tetanus (lock jaw)-inhibit GABA/glycine.
Are botulism spores heat labile? What about anthrax spores? Yes for botulism, no for anthrax.
what causes pseudomembranous colitis? C. difficile (antibiotic associated diarrhea) Enterotoxin A/B.
Name 3 pathogenic features/toxins of clostridia perfringens 1) Lecithinase (alpha toxin)-damage cell membrane. 2) Collagenase 3) Hyaluronidase. (see gas-crepitus)
Which infections are typically mixed, anaerobic or aerobic? anaerobic
What do you treat bacteroides fragilis with? non-penicillin (as it is resistant). --so all infections below the waste should not get penicillin. New cephalosporins are recommended.
what 2 anaerobes cause more than 80% of anaerobic septicemias? bacteroides fragilis and clostridia perfringens
What is the major virulence factor in bacteroides fragilis? capsule
Where are prevotella melaninogenicus found? most common in oral infections. Also in genital infections.
What do prevotella require to grow? no oxygen and need hemin.
Where are fusobacterium found? oral infections, lung abscess, pleuropulmonary infections.
Where are diptheroids found? skin-frequent blood culture contaminant. Can cause endocarditis in compromised patients.
Where are lactobacillus found? intestine/vagina.
Where are actinomyces found? mouth and GI tract. "BRANCHING RODS" Have sulfur granules.
Where are peptostreptococcus found? mouth, urogenital, GI tract.
What can happen when you have bacterial overgrowth in the small bowel? can lead to fat malabsorption and vitamin B12 deficiency.
Name 5 common aerobic mouth flora 1) Streptococcus viridans. 2) Neisseria-non pathogenic. 3) Diptheroids 4) Staph epidermidis. 5) Eikenella corrodens (think human bites).
What is the most common cause of subacute bacterial endocarditis? Strep viridans
What are the 2 most common contaminants of blood cultures? S. epidermidis and diptheroids
4 common anaerobes in the mouth 1) Prevotella 2) Fusobacterium 3) Peptostreptococcus 4) Actinomyces
What bacteria are in the trachea? none-nearly bacteria free in healthy people (same is true of stomach and upper small intestine)
4 Most common intestinal bacteria 1) bacteroides-form ammonia. 2) Lactobacilli 3) Clostridia 4) Coliforms and Enterococcus
5 most common skin bacteria 1) Staph epidermidis 2) S. aureus 3) Diptheroids 4) Proprionibacterium (acne) 5) Peptococcus
What are the 3 most important Staph species? 1) Staph aureus-coagulase positive (others are both negative) 2) Staph epidermidis 3) Staph saprophyticus
Which is catalase positive-Staph or Strep? Staph
What kind of staph toxins cause food borne diarrhea? enterotoxins
What causes scaled skin syndrome? staph-exfoliatins
7 staph toxins 1)alpha toxin-lyse host cell membrane 2) leukocidins-kill leukocytes 3) proteases 4) coagulase (staph a only) 5) staphylokinase-lyse clots 6) hyaluronidase-dissolve hyaluronic acid 7) lipase
name 4 ways staph has to evade host immune responses: 1) protein A-bind IgG on wrong end, stop complement from fixing. 2) enterotoxins-blunt host T cell response 3) capsule 4) Eap (Map)-surface protein that impairs neutrophils.
Is Staph enterotoxin heat stabile? yes. Compare to botulism toxin that is not!
How do you destinguish S. epidermidis from S. saprophyticus? S. epidermidis is sensitive to novobiocin.
What are the M proteins of Strep pyogenes? Fimbriae
7 disease of Strep A 1) puerperal fever 2) acute pharyngitis/tonsilitis "strep throat" sequelae can be rheumatic fever 3) Scarlet fever 4) Impetigo-skin in children (also see with staph) 5) Erysipelis-cellulitis 6) TSS (also staph) 7)necrotizing faciitis
What exotoxin causes Scarlet fever? SpeA, B, C. (also cause toxic shock)
Is Group A strep invasive? yes
3 strep A products that aid invasiveness. 1) Streptolysins (O can't be in oxygen, S type can). Both hemolytic. 2) Streptokinase-trigger proteolysis of fibrin clots. 3) DNAase
2 Strep A factors that help avoid phagocytosis? 1) capsule 2) protein M (also helps with adherence)
2 sequelae of Strep A infections 1) Rheumatic Fever-molecular mimicry 2) Acute glomerulonephritis (complexes) Remember can't find strep A in either of these tissues--just the immunology that mediates.
How do you determine the difference between Strep A and B infections? A is sensitive to bacitracin.
What is the best treatment for Strep A infections? Penicillin.
What does Group B (Strep agalactiae) cause? Neonatal infections.
What do group D (Enterococcus faecalis) cause? UTI
What is the most frequent cause of infective endocarditis? Alpha-hemoyltic strep. (viridans)
Describe the morphology of Strep pneumoniae diplococci.
how do you determine the difference between Strep viridans and strep pneumonia? optochin sensitivity of pneumococcus. (also have large capsule)
how does listeria monocytogenes get from cell to cell? polymerize host actin to power intracellular motility. Can evade antibody in the extracellular fluid. (same as shigella)
How does anthrax exotoxin get into cells? with the help of protective antigen. (lethal factor and edema factor)
What does yersinia pestis (plague) need for virulence? capsule (transmission via fleas) See bubonic and pneumonic plague types.
How do you get franciscella tularensis (tularemia)? tick bite, rabbits (eating or hand contact)
Brucella is a disease of what system in humans? reticuloendothelial system
3 groups of spirochetes that cause disease 1) Treponema-syphillis, yaws, pinta 2) Borrelia-Lyme disease 3) Leptospira
Can Treponema pallidum be cultured? no--but can be mobile in rich media or in testicular tissue of rabbits.
What non-specific test is done to look for syphilis? VDRL-flocculation with cardiolipin.
What specific tests can be done after the non-specific test? FTA-ABS, ELISA, TPI.
What antibiotic should be used for syphillis? penicillin
How do you grow Borrelia? (cause of relapse fever or lyme disease) on chick embryo
Created by: act99