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Science Ex

Science Exam!!! Studyy!!!

Ionic Bonds A compound made of two or more elements
Covalent Bond a type of bond formed between atoms when they share electrons; covalent bonds are strom and chemically stable
Molecule a neutral molecule formed when electrons are shared by atoms rather than being gained or lost
Compound a substance formed by chemical union of 2 or more elements or ingridents in difinite posistion by weight
Chemial formula a combination of symbol used to express the chemical composition of a substance
Water a drinkable liquid that runs through rules,oceans,and steams
Polytomic Ion all of which are made up of a group of positively or negitively charged covalently bonded atoms
Isotope atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons
oxidation state hte number of electrons an atom gains, or shares when bording with another atom
Metal alkall metals,alkalive earth metals
lunar eclipse the blocking of sunlight to the moon that occurs when earth is directly between the sun and the moon
Solar eclipse the blocking of sunlight to earth that occurs when the moon is between the sun and the earth
Moon Phases the differnt shapes of the moon as seen from earth
Solstice the two days of the year on which neither hemisphere is directley overhead of either 235 degree south or 235 degree north
equinox the two days of the year on which neither hemisphere is tilted toward or away from the sun
Rotation the spining motion of the planet about its axis
revolution the movement of an object around another object
neap tide A tide that occurs when the difference between high and low tide is least; the lowest level of high tide.
spring tide The exceptionally high and low tides that occur at the time of the new moon or the full moon when the sun, moon, and earth are approximately aligned
solar system a star with a group of heviley bodies that revolve around it
Milkey Way a broad band of life that stretches across the sky and it caused by the light of a very great number of faint stars
Galaxy milkey way galazy. one of billions of system of stars, gas,dust,that make up the universe
Universe All matter and energy, including the earth, the galaxies, and the contents of intergalactic space, regarded as a whole.
nebula a cloud of interstellar gas and dust.
H-R Diagram the graph showing the absolute magnitude plotted against the surface temperature for a group of stars.
Luminosity the brightness of a star in comparison with that of the sun: the luminosity of Sirius expressed as 23 indicates an intrinsic brightness 23 times as great as that of the sun.
Tempeture a measure of the warmth or coldness of an object or substance with reference to some standard value. The temperature of two systems is the same when the systems are in thermal equilibrium.
Red Giant a star in an intermediate stage of evolution, characterized by a large volume, low surface temperature, and reddish hue.
White Drawf is what stars like our Sun become after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel. Near the end of its nuclear burning stage, such a star expels most of its outer material, creating a planetary nebula.
Main Sequences narrow band in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram in which 90 percent of all observed stars are plotted.
Sun the star that is the central body of the solar system, around which the planets revolve and from which they receive light and heat: its mean distance from the earth is about 93 million miles
Focal Point either of two points on the axis of a mirror, lens, or other optical system
Refraction of light is the bending of a wave when it enters a medium where it's speed is different. The refraction of light when it passes from a fast medium to a slow medium bends the light ray toward the normal to the boundary between the two media.
Reflection of light is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated
Water Cycle the natural sequence through which water passes into the atmosphere as water vapor, precipitates to earth in liquid or solid form, and ultimately returns to the atmosphere through evaporation.
Groundwater the water beneath the surface of the ground, consisting largely of surface water that has seeped down: the source of water in springs and wells
Irrigation the artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops.
Condensation a reaction between two or more organic molecules leading to the formation of a larger molecule and the elimination of a simple molecule such as water or alcohol.
Point Pollution is a single identifiable localized source of air, water, thermal, noise or light pollution.
Non-Point Pollution to mean any source of water pollution that does not meet the legal definition of "point source" in section 502(14) of the Clean Water Act. That definition states:
Wetlands land that has a wet and spongy soil, as a marsh, swamp, or bog.
Precipatation falling products of condensation in the atmosphere, as rain, snow, or hail.
Layers of atmosphere The atmosphere of the Earth may be divided into several distinct layers, as the following figure indicates
Troposphere The lowest region of the atmosphere between the earth's surface and the tropopause, characterized by decreasing temperature with increasing altitude
Stratosphere the region of the upper atmosphere extending upward from the tropopause to about 30 miles (50 km) above the earth, characterized by little vertical change in temperature
Mesosphere the region between the ionosphere and the exosphere, extending from about 250–650 mi. (400–1050 km) above the surface of the earth
Thermosphere the region of the upper atmosphere in which temperature increases continuously with altitude, encompassing essentially all of the atmosphere above the mesosphere.
Ionosphere the region of the earth's atmosphere between the stratosphere and the exosphere, consisting of several ionized layers and extending from about 50 to 250 mi. (80 to 400 km) above the surface of the earth.
Exosphere the highest region of the atmosphere, where the air density is so low that a fast-moving air molecule is more than 50 percent likely to escape from the atmosphere instead of hitting other molecules
Thunderstorm a transient storm of lightning and thunder, usually with rain and gusty winds, sometimes with hail or snow, produced by cumulonimbus clouds.
Tornado a localized, violently destructive windstorm occurring over land, esp. in the Middle West, and characterized by a long, funnel-shaped cloud extending toward the ground and made visible by condensation and debris. Compare waterspout ( def. 3 )
Hurricane a violent, tropical, cyclonic storm of the western North Atlantic, having wind speeds of or in excess of 72 mph (32 m/sec). Compare tropical cyclone, typhoon.
Cumulonimbus clouds Cumulonimbus clouds belong to the Clouds with Vertical Growth group. They are generally known as thunderstorm clouds. A cumulonimbus cloud can grow up to 10km high
Nimbostratus clouds Nimbostratus clouds belong to the Low Cloud (surface to 2000m up) group. They are dark gray with a ragged base. Nimbostratus clouds are associated with continuous rain or snow. Sometimes they cover the whole sky and you can't see the edges of the cloud
Cold Front the zone separating two air masses, of which the cooler, denser mass is advancing and replacing the warmer
Warm Front transition zone between a mass of warm air and the colder air it is replacing
High Pressure system A weather system associated with clear skies, and often cool, denser air
Low Pressure System An area of a relative pressure minimum that has converging winds and rotates in the same direction as the earth. This is counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
Created by: hannahnsheth