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Final Review-2010

Science review

what do transcription and translation do? transcription groups codons and translation tells what protein is made by the codon
genetics the study of genes and how traits are passed
Who is considered the father of modern genetics Gregor Mendel
What plants did he work with Pea plants
How many copies of each gene do humans have? where do they come from one set from mom one set from father
what structures are genes located on chromosomes
how many copies of the dominant gene do you need to see the dominant phenotype only 1
how many copies of the recessive gene do you need to see the recessive phenotype must have 2
define genotype the gene combination an organism has
What are the main sources of variation DNA mutation
How does knowledge of genetics help support the theory of evolution? DNA shows proof that an organism evolved from others
how do variations and natural selection lead to adaption survival of the fittest
who worked out the modern system of classification Carl Lineaus
What are 2-3 advantages of giving organisms scientific names universal, easier, only one name per organism
in a scientific name, the first is? the second is? Genusspecies
List the eight taxa from largest to smallest Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species(HINT: Do Kings Play Chess on Fine Green Silk)
What is the relationship between classification and evolution shows that organisms have a common ancestor
what is the difference between a prokaryote and a eukaryote prokaryote - no nucleus, eukaryote - has nucleus
What are the 3 domains Archae, Bacteris, Eukarya
Which of the 3 domains are made of prokaryotes Archae and Bacteria
How can you tell if two organisms are in the same species, by mating them if they produce fertile offspring
Define consumer, classification, taxonomy consumer-heterotrophclassification-method to group organismstaxonomy-the study of classification
Define species, taxon and binomial nomenclature species - group of similar organisms that can mate and have babiestaxon - a group of one or more organisms considered to be a unitbinomial nomenclature - the form of naming a species
Define autotroph, heterotroph autotroph - an organism that makes its own foodheterotroph - an organism that cannot make its own food
Define prokaryote and eukaryote prokaryote group of organisms that lack a nucleuseurkaryote an organism that has complex cell structure - with a nucleus
What is the scientific name for humans Homo sapiens
What are the four eukaryote kingdoms Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista
What is the only kind of unicellular fungus protista
what kinds of food and drink can you get when it carries out fermentation beer wine bread
What kind of food product do bacteria make during fermentation yogurt, cheese
Archaea and Bacteria 1. No nucleus present (prokaryotes)2. bacteria
Animal like protistsFungus like protistsPlant like protists protozoaslime moldsalgae
How are protozoa put into their classes by the way they move
What are both the animal like and plant like characteristics of Euglena It moves like an animal and hunts for food. It does photosynthesis like a plant
How does a protist move cilia
is a protist an autotroph or heterotroph heterotroph
where does the protist store food vacuole
how does the protist control its water balance contractile vacuole
is the contractile involved in passive or active transport active ATP is used
What happens to a protist whose contractile vacuole stops working it explodes
what are invertebrates without backbone
which evolved first, invertebrates or vertebrates invertabrates
what are vertabrates organisms that have backbone
what do vertabra protect spinal cord
similar specialized cells form what? tissue
a group of different tissues working to do a function form an? organ
write the levels of organization from simplest to most complex specialized cells, tissue, organ, organ system, multicellular organism
what do your different kinds of tissue do connective - connectsepithelial - covers organsnerve - sends impulsesmuscle - causes movement
3 types of muscle skeletal, smooth, cardiac
skeletal muscles act in pairs one contracts; the other relaxes
if the muscle contracts does it get longer or shorter shorther
if the muscle contracts is it pulling or pushing the bone pulling only - never pushes
what causes movement, contraction or relaxation contraction
is skeletal muscle voluntary or involuntary? cardiac? smooth muscle? voluntaryinvoluntaryinvoluntary
what stimulates muscle to contract a nerve impulse
is skeletal muscle smooth or striated? cardiac? smooth? striatedboth smooth and skeletalnot striated
what are the functions of the skeleton movement, RBC, stores minerals, support
what is a vertebrate organism with backbone
what do tendons do attach muscle to bone
what do ligaments do attach bone to bone
what kind of tissue are ligaments made of skeletal
what organs are protected by which parts of your skeleton most organs are protected by the sternum, ribs and vertabrae
what are the parts of blood and what each one does RBC - carry oxygenWBC - fight infectionPlasma - watery part that allows movementplatelets - stop bleeding
Three types of vessels Arteries, veins, capillaries
how do the three types of vessels differ from each other arteries carry blood away from heart, veins carry blood to heart and have valves, capillaries are tiny and exchange with the cells
what are the four blood types A, B, AB, O
which blood types can each blood type donate to O is the universal donor, AB is the universal receiver
define respitory system exchanges gases between the outside environment and our insides
what is the major organ and what does it contain lungsalveoli
what else are alveoli called air sacs
what is exchanged between the alveoli and capilleries oxygen/carbon dioxide
what type of transport is involved in gas exchange diffusion
whe exhale to excrete what? CO2 & O2 produced in our body during aerobic respiration
the smooth muscle involved in breathing is the diaphram
define phenotype how an organism looks
what does it mean to be pure? homozygous? one of each allele? both alleles are the same hybrid heterzygous are both not purecarrier has a recessive allele for a disorder but does not have the disorder
If B=black fur and b=white fur solve the following: what are the phenotypes of BB, Bb, bb homozygous dominantheterozygoushomozygous recessive
what is meant by sex linkage the trait is on the X chromosome
why do sex linked traits show up more in males than females? males only have one X chromosome
humans have how many chromosomes 46
how many of the human chromosomes are autosomes 44 (22 pairs)
2 are sex chromosomes. what are they for males? females? XYXX
If a sperm with 22 chromosomes and a Y chromosome fertilizes an egg with 22 chromosomes and an X will the baby be male or female XY - male. female had the X male had the Y baby XY which is male
hemophilia - what is it? is it sex linked genetic disorder - problem with blood clottingyes
sickle cell anemia - what went wrong? why shape of red blood cell is bad. blood gets stuck in small places and causes pain
define heredity, genetics, gene heredity-passing traits to offspring from parentsgenetics-study of genesgenes-unit of heredity in a living organism
define allele, gamete allele-one of two or more forms of the DNA sequence of a particular genegamete- cell that fuses with another gamete during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually
define dominant dominant-gene that produces the same phenotype in the organism whether or not its allele identical;
define recessive gene that produces its characteristic phenotype only when its allele is identical; "the recessive gene for blue eyes"
What does evolution mean slow change in species over time
understand key parts of darwin's theory of natural selection overproduction-make more offspring than will livecompetition-not enough food, water, sheltervariation-random difference in an organismsurvival of the fittest-organism with best trait will survive
according to theory of evolution, how do we now explain variation within a species DNA mutations, natural selection
what are the three things organisms compete for food water shelter
what is a homologous structure bone structure that looks the same but is different
what is meant by common descent organism that came from the same ancestor
where did living things evolve, land or water both
difference between variation and adaption variation is a difference, adaption helps an organism survive
Created by: zzzach