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Philosophy 105

Exam 1

philosophy seeking to understand the general principles of everything using reason and experience
argument set of reasons or evidence in support of a conclusion
conclusion main point of argument
premises material alleged to support the conclusion
sound argument valid reasoning + true premises
valid reasoning premises really support the conclusion
mythopeic culture wisdom passes through telling stories; oral culture
nature philosophers -Subject: natural world -method: reason and experience (math, logic) -goal: seek understanding -included Thales, Anaximenes, Anaxagorus, Pythagorus, and Democritus
Sophists -"wise" (sarcastic) -subject: focus on human life -method: persuasion -goal: seek advantage -included Protagorus, Gorgius
Thales -1st philosopher -nature philosopher -we live in cosmos, not chaos -585 BC in turkey -predicted an eclipse -measured pyramids w/ shadow -cosmos is water
Anaxagorus -nous; cosmic intelligence -nature philosopher
Democritus -all that is presented by the senses is made of particles (a-"non", tom-"cut") -nature philosopher
Pythagorus -fundamental structure of reality is numbers -nature philosopher
Heraclitus -fundamental structure of reality is fire (flux-change) -nature philosopher
Parmenides -reality is consistent, unchanging, but senses change things and these perceived by the senses pass away -nature philosopher
Protagorus -knew how to manipulate people in any given place -persuasion guy-"man is the measure of all things" -sophist
Gorgius -persuade by arguing both sides of a case simultaneously -sophist
Modus Ponens if p then q, p, therefore q
Modus tollens if p then q, not q, therefore not p
hypothetical syllogism if p then q, if q then r, therefore if p then r
dilemna p or q, if p then r, if q then s, therefore r or s
reductio ad absurdum -reduction to absurdity -to prove p, assume the opposite: not p, argue that from the assumption we'd have to conclude q, show that q is false, conclude p must be true
ad hominem -to the man -attacking the person of a source rather than their qualifications or reliability, or the argument
ad ignorantiam -appeal to ignorance -arguing that a claim is true just because it has not been shown to be false (he must be a Communist...)
ad misericordiam -appeal to pity -appealing to pity as an argument for special treatment (you have to let me pass!)
ad populum -to people -appealing to the emotions of a crowd, appealing to a person to go along w/ the crowd (would you jump off a cliff?)
begging the question implicitly using your conclusion as a premise (stating the same thing)
complex question posing a question in such a way that people cannot agree or disagree w/ you without committing themselves to some other claim you wish to promote (rude)
equivocation -same sound -sliding from one meaning of a term to another in the middle of an argument (the firetruck is russian/rushing, so it's red)
false cause -any questionable conclusion about cause and effect
false dilemma -reducing the opinions you consider to just two, often diametrically opposed to each other and unfair to the people against whom the dilemma is posed -overlooks alternatives
poisoning the well using loaded language to disparage an argument before even mentioning it "...still haven't outgrown the superstition that..."
straw man a caricature of an opposing view, exaggerated from what anyone is likely to hold, so that it is easy to refute (political cartoons)
weasel word -suck out the meaning of the word, only shell left -"we will accept any reasonable offer..." -kind of equivocation
Created by: 518732976