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Pesticides plus

Pesticides and Agriculture- APES

DDT and dieldrin are... chlorinated hydrocarbons
parathion, malathion are examples of organophosphates
The most persistant class of pesticides (and therefore largely banned in the U.S.) chlorinated hydrocarbons
Advantages of pesticides: save lives, increase food supply, work fast, safe if used properly, can increase farmer profits in short term
Disadvantages of pesticides: promote genetic resistance, kil natural pest enemies, pollute soils and water, can harm wildlife and people, costly to farmer as genetic resistance spreads
Reduce your exposure to pesticides by... eating organic foods, growing your own fruits & veggies, eat less or no meat, trim the fat off meat you eat, wash and scrub all produce
Alternatives to pesticides cultivation methods such as crop rotation or strip cropping, bring in natural enemies (biological controls like bacteria and pesticides), scalding pests with hot water (this is done here in FL)
Integrated pest management (IPM) designed program using a combination of cultivation, biological controls and chemical tools
Disadvantages of IPM requires expert knowledge and high upfront costs
Ways IPM could be promoted by government add taxes to pesticides and use revenue to fund IPM research, federally supported IPM demonstration project at at least 1 farm in every county, train USDA field personal in IPM so they can help farmers
Terracing a way to grow food on steep slopes w/out depleting topsoil. terraces run across land's contours which helps retain water and reduces erosion.
alley cropping one or more crops planted together in strips between trees or shrubs that provide shade and prevent erosion.
conservation tillage no-till or minimum tillage farming that increase crop yields, traps carbon in soil, prevents erosion.
strip cropping alternating strips of row-crops like corn and cover crops. cover crops traps topsoil and reduces water runoff.
organic fertilizers animal manure, green manure(vegetation), compost-all add humus to soil, nutrients, texture
N-P-K nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium-major fertilzer nutrients which are essential to plant growth.
Ways to prevent/clean-up salinization of soils reduce irrigation and switch to salt-tolerant crops, flush soil (could lead to water-logging),stop growing crops for a few years, install underground drainage system (expensive)
Golden Rice genetically engineered rice that contians beta-carotene (body converts it to vitamin A (without this blindness sets in). Created for malnutrion problem in developing countries.
monocultures raising single crop. polycultures are healthier for the land.
slash and burn agriculture cutting trees in a part of tropical rainforest, growing crops there for a few years, then moving on to another portion of land
Created by: sallywentzell