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Absolute Age The exact age of a rock
Adaptation A trait that improves an organism's chance for survival
Adhesion Water molecules stick to another surface
algal bloom the rapid growth of algae due to too many nutrients in the water
antibiotic resistance bacteria develop a tolerance to medicine
antibiotics group of medicines used to kill bacterial disease
antimicrobial substance that kills microbes (ex: hand sanitizer)
aquifer underground rock layer that stores water
asthma bronchi swell and person has difficulty breathing
atom smallest unit of matter
atomic mass protons + neutronsbottom number
atomic number number of protonstop number
ATP Chemical compound cells use for energy
Benthos organisms that live near the ocean bottom
Boiling Point temperature at which substance turns from liquid to gas
Buoyancy Upward force of water on an object
Cancer group of diseases caused by abnormal cell growth
carcinogen chemical that causes cancer
carrier organism that is infected with a disease, but does not show symptoms
cell basic unit of structure and function in all living things
cell cycle cells grow, make copies of their chromosomes, and divide to form daughter cells
cell membrane the structure that surrounds a cell, protects cell from outside
cell theory 1. all living things are made of cell2. a cell is the basic unit of structure and function3. all cells come from existing cells
cellular respiration the process cells use to obtain energy from food
chemical bonds forces that hold atoms together
chemical change change in appearance and chemical make up-a new substance is formed
chemical formula chemical symbols and subscripts that tell the number of atoms of each element in a compound
chemical reaction process by which new substances are formed
chemical weathering changes the chemical composition of rocks
chlorophyll green pigment that captures the energy of the Sun to drive the proces of photosynthesis
chloroplast a cell organelle where photosynthesis occurs
cilia tiny hairs that cover the outside of the cell, used for movement
cohesion the water sticks to other water molecules
compound two or more elements chemically combined
concentration amount of a substance in a given volume
conductor material that allows heat and electricity to flow through it easily; characteristic of most metals
consumer organism that gets energy by eating other organisms
contagion disease that can be spread from one organism to another
continental drift process by which the continents split apart from a single landmass
contour line a line on a topographic map that connects areas with the same elevation (height)
contractile vacuole cell structure used to pump water out of the cell; in Paramecium
convergent boundary two tectonic plates push together; forms mountains
covalent bond two atoms share electrons equally
cytokinesis division of the cytoplasm
cytoplasm fluid that fills the space inside of a cell
decomposer organism that obtains energy by breaking down wastes of organisms or the remains of dead organisms
density mass/volume
DNA nucleic acid that carries genetic information
desalination process used to separate salt from seawater; results in fresh water and salt
divergent boundary two techtonic plates move apart
dose amount of a chemical given to an individual
ductile able to be stretched into wires without breaking; characteristic of most metals
electron subatomic particle that has a negative charge and is located around the outside of the nucleus
electron cloud region surrounding the nucleus where the electrons are located
element substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) moves molecules from one part of the cell to another
estuary area where salty ocean water mixes with fresh water from rivers
eukaryote organism whose cells have a nucleus
evolution change over time
exposure time how long an individual is exposed to a chemical
extinct no longer found living on Earth
extinction disappearance of a species from Earth
eyespot an organell of the protist Euglena that is sensitive to light
fault a break in Earth's surface
fertilizers chemicals that help plants grow
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) illnesses that can affect the unborn child of a mother who drinks alcohol
flagellum whiplike tail on cells, used for movement
food preservatives chemicals used to prevent food from spoiling
food web shows what each organism in an ecosystem eats
fossils imprints of organisms that were once alive
gamete sex cell (sperm/egg)
geologic time scale timeline that organizes events in Earths History
glacier moving mass of ice and snow
glycolysis break down of glucose in a cell
Golgi apparatus organelle that modifies proteins
ground truthing checking features on a satellite image by visiting the location on Earth
groundwater water located below Earth's surface
group column of the periodic table; contains elements that have similar properties
homeostasis maintaining stability/balance
hydrosphere all of the water on Earth; includes groundwater, surface water, and water in the air/atmosphere
hydrothermal vents cracks in the ocean crust that release mineral rich water that has been heated by Earth's interior
index fossil the fossil of an organism that helps us determine the age of a rock
insulator material that does not allow electricity or heat to flow through it easily; characteristic of most non-metals
interphase a period of growth and DNA replication that occurs between cell divisions
intertidal zone the shoreline area; where the tide comes in and out
ionic bonds bonds formed by the transfer of electrons
law of conservation of matter during a chemical reaction, matter cannot be created or destroyed
law of superposition older rock layers are at the bottom, younger rock layers are at the top
lysosome the organelle that digests nutrients and old organelles
magnetism force of attraction between unlike poles (+/-), characteristic of metals
malleable able to be hammered or bent without breaking
mass extinction the disappearance of a large number of species in a short period of time
mechanical weathering the break down of rocks into smaller pieces
meiosis process in which organisms produce gametes
melting point temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid
three types of elements metal, non-metal, metalloid
location of metals on periodic table left
location of non-metals on periodic table right
location of metalliods on periodic table staircase
group of elements that conducts heat and electricity, is shiny, and malleable metals
group of elements that does not conduct heat or electricity, is dull, and not malleable non-metals
group of elements that is sometimes shiny, sometimes malleable, and semi-conductors metalloids
microbe tiny organism that can be seen through a microscope
mitochondria organelle that makes ATP (energy) for the cell to use
mitosis process by which the nucleus divides to form two nuclei
mixture two or more substances combined physically but not chemically
molecule smallest unit of a compound
multicellular organism made of more than one cell
mutagen anything that changes the DNA of an organism
mutate to change the genetic make-up of an organism
natural selection the theory that explains how populations can eventually evolve into new species
nekton swimming organisms in the ocean
neritic zone slope from the shoreline to the ocean floor; contains coral reefs, where upwellings occur
neutron particle that has no charge and is found in the nucleus of an atom
nitrates used for growth by plants and algae
non-point source pollution pollution that comes from many places or indirect
nuclear membrane membrane around the nucleus of a cell
nucleus (atom) center of an atom
nucleus (cell) organelle that controls the cell
oceanic zone open waters of the ocean
oceanography study of the physical properties of the ocean
organelle a structure inside a cell that carries out a process of life; mini-organ
parasite organism that lives off another organism
pathogen organism that causes disease
period horizontal row of the periodic table
periodic table chart that organizes elements
pesticides chemicals designed to kills organisms that are considered pests (insects, weeds, etc)
pH measure of how acidic or basic a substance is
physical change change in appearance, but not in chemical make-up
plankton tiny organisms that are moved by ocean currents
plate tectonics the theory stating that the continents and oceans are all sitting on large pieces of rocks that are constantly moving
point-source pollution pollution that comes from a single site; direct
polarity slightly positive end, slightly negative end; property of water
potency how powerful a chemical is
precipitate solid that forms from a chemical reaction
producer organism that makes its own food
product substance formed during a chemical reaction
prokaryote unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus
proton subatomic particle with a positive charge, found in the nucleus
pseudopod extension of the cytoplasm; used for movement by amoebas
reactant substance that takes part in a chemical reaction
reflectance curve a graph that shows how a surface of Earth reflects light
relative age the age of an object compared to another object (older, younger, same age as)
remote sensing gathering information from a distance or above
reproduction ability of cells or organisms to make more organisms like themselves
ribosome organelle where proteins are synthesized
risk-benefit analysis the process of weighing the potential harm against the benefits
salinity how salty water is
septic system wastewater treatment system for an individual home or farm
solubility the amount of a substance that will dissolve in another substance
solution a substance made by dissolving one substance in another substance so that the two substances are evenly mixed
solvent substance that dissolves another substance
sonar using sound echoes to measure the depth of the ocean
specific heat the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree
spectral analysis study of the reflectance of objects or substances on Earth using satellite imagery
subduction one tectonic plate sinks under another
surface tension force that acts on the particles at the surface of a liquid; caused by cohesion
synthetic chemical chemical that is not formed in nature; made by people
tectonic plates giant chunks of land or ocean floor
theory of plat tectonics theory that states that Earth's land is broke into large sections called tectonic plates that move and change position over time
topographic map map that shows elevation (height) and vegetation (plants)
transform boundary two tectonic plates slide past each other
turbidity how muddy water is
unconformity a missing rock layer; caused by weathering
unicellular organism made of one cell
universal solvent water can dissolve more substances that any other solvent
upwelling movement of cold, nutrient-rich waters from the deep ocean into shallow areas; caused by wind blowing away from shore
urban sprawl spreading out of a city
vaccination a person is given a small dose of a weakened or inactive virus that builds a person's immune system defenses against that disease
vector a living thing that spreads a disease
virus a particle that consists of a nucleic acid enclosed in a protein shell that requires a host cell to reproduce; NON-living
volume space an object takes up
wastewater water that runs down a drain
wastewater treatment plants facilities that process water to remove wastes and the release the clean water into a lake or stream
weathering break down of rocks
Created by: slabedz