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deviance and crime sociology chpt 7

deviance occurs when someone departs from a norm
informal punishment involves a mild sanction that is imposed during face-to-face interaction, not by the judicial system
stigmatized people who are stigmatized are negatively evaluated because of a marker that distinguishes them from others and this is labeled as socially unacceptable
formal punishment takes place when the judicial system penalizes someone for breaking the law
social diversions are minor acts of deviance that are generally perceived as relatively harmless and that evoke, at most, a mild societal reaction, such as amusement or distain
social deviations are non criminal departures from norms that are nonetheless subject to official control.
conflict crimes are illegal acts that many people consider harmful to society. They are punishable by state.
consensus crimes are illegal acts that nearly all people agree are bad in themselves and harm society `greatly. The state inflicts sever punishment for consensus crimes
social constructionism argues that apparently natural or innate features of life are often sustained by social processes that vary historically and culturally
white collar crime refers to an illegal act committed by a respectable, high-status person in the course of his or her work
street crimes include arson, break and enter, assault, and other illegal acts disproportionately committed by people of lower classes
victimless crimes involve violations of the law in which no victim steps forward and is identified
self-report surveys respondents are asked to report their involvement in criminal activities, either as perpetrators or as victims
victimization surveys are surveys in which people are asked whether they have been victims of crime
social control refers to methods of ensuring conformity
motivation theories identify the social factors that drive people to commit deviant and criminal acts
constraint theories identify the social factors that impose deviance and crime (or conventional behavior) on people
strain theory holds that people may turn to deviance when they experience strain.
strain result when a culture teaches people the value of material success and society fails to provide enough legitimate opportunities for everyone to succeed.
subcultural theory argues that gangs are a collective adaptation to social conditions
techniques of neutralization are the rationalizations that deviants and criminals use to justify their activities
differential association theory holds that people learn to value deviant or non-deviant lifestyles depending on whether their social environment leads them to associate more with deviants or non-deviants
labeling theory holds that deviance results not so much from the actions of the deviant as from the response of others, who label the rule breaker a deviant
master status a person's master status is his or her overriding public identity. it is the status that is most influential in shaping that person's life at a given time
control theory holds that the rewards of deviance and crime are ample. Therefore, nearly everyone would engage in deviance and crime if they could get away with it
conflict theory the conflict theory of crime holds that deviance and crime arise out the conflict between power and the powerless
moral panic occurs when many people fervently believe that some form of deviance or crime poses a profound threat to societies well being
recidivism rates indicate the proportion of people re-arrested after an initial arrest
Created by: pinkdyme91