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CJ vocab

Vocab for Criminal Justice Midterm

Crime Violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government or a local jurisdiction, for which there is no legally acceptable justification/excuse.
Bill of Rights First 10 Amendments to the United States Constitution.
Crime Index A now defunct program created by the FBI that reported the UCR's Program's measure of violent and property crime categories (part I offenses)
Conflict Model A criminal justice perspective that assumes that the system's components function primarily to serve their own intersts. Jusstice is a product of conflict among the agencies rather than an result of cooperation.
Bail The money or property pledged to the court or actually deposited with the court to effect the release of a person from custody.
Booking A law enforcement or correctional administrative process officially recording an entry into a detention after arrest and identifying the person, the place, the time, the reason for the arrest, and the arresting authority.
Consecutive Sentences One of two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after a conviction for more than one offense, and served in sequence with the other sentence.
Arraignment The hearing before a court with jurisdiction in a criminal case, in which the defendant is identified, is informed of the charges against them, and are required to enter a plea.
Concurrent Sentence One of two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction for more than one offense, and served at the same time.
Aggravated Assault The unlawful, intentional inflicting, or attempted or threatened inflicting of serious injury upon the person of another.
Cyberstalking The use of the Internet, or other electronic technologies to stalk another person.
Deviance A violation of social norms defining appropriate behavior under a set of circumstances.
Classical School 18th century approach to criminal justice during the Enlightenment that believed that the punishment should heavily outweigh the potential pleasure of the criminal behavior.
Phrenology A branch of study that believed there was a correlation between the shape of one's head and behavior.
Common Law Law originating from usage and custom rather than written statutes.
Statutory Law Law that make it a crime for juveniles to engage in certain behaviors.
Case Law The body of judicial precedent, historically built on legal reasoning and past interpretations of statutory laws, that serves as a guide to decision-making, especially in the courts.
Precedent A legal principle that ensures that previous judicial decisions are authoritatively considered and incorporated into future cases.
Felony A criminal offense punishable by death or incarceration in a prison facility for at least one year.
Misdemeanor An offense punishable by incarceration, usu in a local confinement facility, typically one year or less.
Mens Rea The state of mind that accompanies a criminal act. Also, a guilty mind.
Night Watch An early form of police patrol in English cities and towns.
Vigilantism The act of taking the law into one's own hands.
Crime prevention The anticipation, recognition, and appraisal of a crime risk and the intitian of action to eliminate or reduce it.
Response Time A measure of the time that it takes for police officers to respond to calls for service.
Solvability Factor Information about a crime that forms the basis for determining the perpetrator's identity.
Community Policing A collaborative effor between the police and the community to idetify problems of crime and involves the community in the search for solutions.
Police Discretion The opportunity of law enforcement officers to exercise choice in their daily activities.
Chain of Command The line of authority extending through all levels of an organization, from the highest to the lowest.
3 Branches of Government: Judicial, Legislative, Executive
Due Process Right guaranteed by the 5th, 6th, and 14th amendments.
Exclusionary Rule Incriminating information must be seized according to constitutional specification of due process or it will not be admissable in court. Based on Supreme Court precedent.
Fruit of the Poisonous Tree A legal principle that excludes from introduction at trial if the evidence developed as a result of an illegal search or seizure.
Plain view Legal term describing the ready visibility of objects taht might be seized as evidence during a search by police in the absence of a search warrant specifying the seizure of those objects
Arrest The act of taking an adult or juvenile into physical custody by authority of law for the purpose of chargin the person with a criminal offense.
Reasonable suspicion The level of suspicion that would justify an officer in making further inquiry or in conducting further investigation.
Compelling Interest A legal concept that allows suspicionless searches when public safety is at risk.
Suspicionless Search Search conducted by law enforcement without a warrant and without suspicion. It is permissable only if based on an overriding concern for public safety.
Inherent Coercion The tactics used by police interviewers that fall short of physical abuse but that nonetheless pressure suspects to divulge information.
Interrogation The information-gathering activity of police officers that involves the direct questioning of suspects
Police Corruprtion The abuse of police authority for personal or organizational gain.
Knapp Commission A committee that investigated police corruption in NYC in the early 1970s.
Original Jurisdiction Lawful authority of a court to hear or to act on a case from the beginning and to pass judgement. Authority may be based on the type of case or geographic area.
Court of last Resort The court authorized by law to hear the final appeal on a matter.
Judicial Review The power of a court to review actions and decisions made by other agencies of government.
Plea In criminal proceedings, the defendants formal answer in court to the charge contained in a complaint, information, or indictement that he or she is guilty of the offense charged, is not guilt, or does not contest the charge.
Nolo Contendre "No Contest" plea; does not admit guilt.
Mitigation factors Circumstances relating to the commission of a crime that may be considered to reduce the blameworthiness of the defendant
Mixed Sentence A sentence that requires that a convicted offender serve weekends in a confinement facility while undergoing probationary supervision in the community.
Auburn System A form of imprisonment developed in New York in 1820 that depended on mass prisons, where prisoners were held in congregate fashion and required to remain silent.
Ashurst-Sumners Act Federal Legislation that ended the industrial prison era by restricting interstate commerce in prison-made goods.
ADMAX Term used by the federal government to describe ultra-high security prisons.
Jail A confinement facility administered by the local government, usually enforcement agency intended for adults but also contains juveniles.
Prison A state or federal confinement facility that has custodial authority over adults sentenced to confinement.
Private Prison A correctional institution operated by a private firm on behalf of a local or state governement.
Prison subculture The values and behavioral patterns characteristic of prison inmates.
Security Threat Group An inmate group/gang/organization whose members are considered a threat to the safety of correctional staff or the public, prey on inmates, or threaten the correctional institution.
Parens Patriae Common Law priniciple that allows the state to assume the parental role and take custody of the child if the child becomes delinquent, abandoned, or is in need of care that the natural parents are unable or unwilling to provide
Drug Any chemical substance defined by social convention as bioactive or psychoactive
Recreational user A person who uses drugs infrequently and primarily with friends in a social context.
Curtilage The area surrounding a residence tha can reasonably be saaid to be a part of the residence for 4th Amendment purposes.
Drug Trafficking Trading or dealing in controlled substances, including transporting, storage, importing, exporting, or sale of a controlled substance
Club Drug A psychoactive substance often found in night clubs, raves, bars, etc. Includes meth, ecstacy, pcp, rohypnol
Forfeiture The authorized seizure of money or other thing of value. Under federal law, judicial representatives may seize cash and other things of value if they were used in exchange for controlled substances.
Retribution The act of taking revenge on a criminal perpetrator.
Incapacitation The use of imprisonment or other means to reduce the likelihood that an offender will commit future offenses
Deterrence Seeks to inhbit criminal behavior through the fear or punishment.
Rehabilitation The attempt to reform a criminal offender.
Restoration Attempting to make the victim "whole again"
Restorative Justice Sentencing model that builds on restitution and community participation in an attempt to make the victim "whole again"
Aggravating circumstances Circumstances relating to the commission of a crime that make it more grave than the average instance of that crime.
Truth in Sentencing A close correspondence betwee nthe sentence imposed on an offender and the time actually served in prison.
Proportionality Sentencing principle that holds the severity of sanctions should bear a direct relationship to the seriousness of the crime committed.
Juvenile Justice System. Government agencies that function to investigate, supervise, adjudicate, care for or confine youthful offenders and other children subject to the jurisdiction of the juvenile court
Delinquency Juvenile actions or conduct in violation of criminal law, juvenile status offenses and other juvenile misbehavior.
Undiscipline child A child who is beyond parental control,evidenced by their refusal to obey authority figures.
Dependent Child A child who has no parents or whose parents can not take care of them.
Neglected Child Child who is not receiving the proper level of physcial or psychological care from their parents/guardians.
Abused Child Child who has been physically, sexually, or mentally abused.
Status Offender A child who commits an act that is against the law because the offender is a child/juvenile.
Status Offense An act that is declared by statute to be an offense because it was committed by a juvenile.
Blended Sentence A juvenile court disposition that imposes both a juvenile sanction and an adult criminal sentence. The adult sentence is suspended if the juvenile offender successfully completes the term of the juvenile disposition and refrains from committing crimes.
Controlled Substance A bioactive or psychoactive chemical substance legally allowed by the law.
Drug court A special state, county or municipal court that offers first-time substance abuse offenders judically mandated and court-supervised treatement alternatives to prison.
Justice The principle of fairness.
Rape Unlawful sexual intercourse achieved through force and without consent.
Date Rape Unlawful forced sexual intercourst with a female against her will that occurs within a dating relationship.
Created by: Toxic_Lace