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APHG Industrializati

APHG Unit 7 Industrialization Barrons & Rubenstein

WordsDefinitions
Break of Bulk point A location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another.
Bulk reducing industry An industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs.
Cottage industry Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
Fordist production Form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly.
Industrial Revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods
Labor intensive industry An industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses.
Maquiladora Factories built by u.s. companies in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of much cheaper labor costs in Mexico.
New international division of labor Transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid less skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries.
Post Fordist production Adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks.
Right to work state A U.S. state that has passed a law preventing a union and company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join a union as a condition of employment.
Site factors Location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside the plant, such as land, labor, and capital.
Situation factors The location of a place relative to other places. Situation factors Location factors related to the transporta¬tion of materials into and from a factory.
Textile A fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing
Trading bloc A group of neighboring countries that promote trade with each other and erect barriers to limit trade with other blocs
Basic Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
Business services Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses.
Central Bussiness District The area of the city where retail and office activities are clustered.
Central Place A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
Central Place theory A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services
City State A sovereign state comprising a city and its immediate hinterland.
Clustered rural settlement A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement.
Consumer Services Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services
Dispersed rural settlement A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
Economic base A community's collection of basic industries.
Enclosure movement The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
Gravity model A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance peo¬ple must travel to reach the service.
Market area The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
Nonbasic industries Industries that sell their products prima¬rily to consumers in the community.
Personal Services services that provide for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers
Consumer Services Business that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services.
Primate City A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement. (Population 2x)
Producer services Services that primarily help people con¬duct business.
Range The maximum distance people are will¬ing to travel to use a service.
Rank size rule A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
Retail Services Services that provide goods for sale to consumers.
service An activity that fulfills a human Want or need and re-turns money to those who provide it.
Settlement A permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants.
Threshold The minimum number of people needed to support the service
Transportation and information services Services that dif¬fuse and distribute services.
Annexation Legally adding land area to a city in the United States.
Census tract An area delineated bv the U.S. Bureau of the Census for which statistics are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods.
Concentric zone model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Council of government A cooperative agency consisting of representatives of local governments in a metropolitan area in the United States.
Density gradient The change in density in an urban area from the center to the periphery.
Edge city A large node of office and retail activities on the edge of an urban area.
Filtering process of change in the use of a house, from single-family owner occupation to abandonment.
Gentrification A process of converting an urban neighborhood from a predominantly low-income renter-occupied area to a predominantly middle-class owner-occupied area.
Greenbelt A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
Metropolitan statistical area (MSA) In the United States, a central city of at least 50,000 population, the county within which the city is located, and adjacent counties meeting one of several tests indicating a functional connection to the central city.
Micropolitan statistical area An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
Multiple nuclei model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
Peripheral model A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
Public housing Housing owned by the government; in the United States, it is rented to low-income residents, and the rents are set at 30 percent of the families' incomes.
Redlining A process by which banks draw lines on a map and refuse to lend money to purchase or improve property within the boundaries.
Rush (or peak) hour The four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic
Sector model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Sprawl Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
Squatter settlement An area within a city in a less developed country in which people illegally establish residences on land they do not own or rent and erect homemade structures.
Underclass A group in society prevented from participating in the material benefits of a more developed society because of a variety of social and economic characteristics.
Urbanization An increase in the percentage and in the number of people living in urban settlements.
Urbanized area In the United States, a central city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs.
Urban renewal Program in which cities identify blighted inner-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private members, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
Zoning ordinance A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.
Action space The geographical area that contains the space an individual interacts with on a daily basis.
Beaux arts This movement within city planning and urban design that stressed the marriage of older, classical forms with newer, industrial ones.
Central business district The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge.
Central place theory A theory formulated by Walter Christaller in the early 1900s that explains the size and distribution of cities in terms of a competi¬tive supply of goods and services to dispersed populations.
City Beautiful movement Movement in environmental design that drew directly from the beaux arts school.
Colonial city Cities established by colonizing empires as administrative cen¬ters. Often they were established on already existing native cities, completely overtaking their infrastructures.
Concentric zone model Model that describes urban environments as a series ofrings of distinct land uses radiating out from a central core, or central busi¬ness district.
Edge city Cities that are located on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decentralized suburban environment.
European cities Cities in Europe that were mostly developed during the Medieval Period and that retain many of the same characteristics
Exurbanite Person who has left the inner city and moved to outlying suburbs or rural areas.
Feudal city Cities that arose during the Middle Ages and that actually represent a time of relative stagnation in urban growth.
Gateway city Cities that, because of their geographic location, act as ports of entry and distribution centers for large geographic areas.
Gentrification The trend of middle- and upper-income Americans moving into city centers and rehabilitating much of the architecture but also replacing low-income populations, and changing the social character of certain neighborhoods.
Ghettoization A process occurring in many inner cities in which they become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out to the suburbs and immigrants and people of color vie for scarce jobs and resources.
Hinterland The market area surrounding an urban center, which that urban center serves.
Industrial Revolution Period characterized by the rapid social and economic changes in manufacturing and agriculture that occurred in England during the late 18th century and rapidly diffused to other parts of the developed world.
Inner city decay Those parts of large urban areas that lose significant portions of their populations as a result of change in industry or migration to suburbs. Because of these changes, the inner city loses its tax base and becomes a center of poverty.
Islamic cities Cities in Muslim countries that owe their structure to their religious beliefs. (Mosques,open-air market,dead-end streets,courtyards surrounded by high walls)
Latin American cities Cities in Latin America that owe much of their structure to colonialism increases in population.
Medieval cities Cities that developed in Europe during the Medieval Period.(Narrow winding streets, high walls surrounding the city center for defense)
Megacities Cities, mostly characteristic of the developing world, where high population growth and migration have caused them to explode in population since World War II. (plagued by chaotic and unplanned growth, terrible pollution, and widespread poverty)
Megalopolis metropolitan areas that were originally separate but that have joined together to form a large, sprawling urban complex.
Metropolitan area Within the United States, an urban area consisting of one or more whole county units, usually containing several urbanized areas, or suburbs, that all act together as a coherent economic whole.
Modern architecture Point of view, wherein cities and buildings are thought to act like well-oiled machines, with little energy spent on frivolous details
Multiple nuclei model Type of urban form wherein cities have numerous centers of business and cultural activity instead of one central place.
Node Geographical centers of activity. A large city, such as Los Angeles, has numerous nodes.
Postmodern architecture A reaction in architectural design to the feeling of sterile alienation that many people get from modern architecture. (uses older, historical styles and a sense of lightheartedness and eclec¬ticism. )
Primate city A country's leading city, with a population that is dispropor¬tionately greater than other urban areas within the same country.
Rank-size rule Rule that states that the population of any given town should be inversely proportional to its rank in the country's hierarchy when the dis¬tribution of cities according to their sizes follows a certain pattern.
Sector model A model or urban land use that places the central business dis¬trict in the middle with wedge-shaped sectors radiating outwards from the center along transportation corridors.
Segregation The process that results from suburbanization when affluent individuals leave the city center for homogenous suburban neighborhoods.
Squatter settlements Residential developments characterized by extreme poverty that usually exist on land just outside of cities that is neither owned nor rented by its occupants.
Suburb Residential communities, located outside of city centers, that are usually relatively homogenous in terms of population.
Urban growth boundary Geographical boundaries placed around a city to limit suburban growth with~n that city.
Urban revitalization The process of reconstruction occurring in some urban areas experienc¬ing inner city decay.(new shopping districts,entertainment venues,cultural atrractions to entice young urban professionals back into cities)
Urban sprawl The process of expansive suburban development over large areas spreading out from a city, in which the automobile provides the primary source of transportation.
World City Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
Created by: Chenchen on 2010-04-21



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