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APHG Location

APHG Unit 1 Location Barrons & Rubenstein

WordsDefinitions
Agricultural density The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of land suitable for agriculture.
Arithmetic density The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Base line An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Cartography The science of making maps.
Concentration The spread of something over a given area. Concentric zone model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Connections Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.
Contagious diffusion The rapid, widespread diffusionfeature or trend throughout a population.
Cultural ecology Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
Cultural landscape Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group.
Culture The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group of people's distinct tradition.
Density The frequency With which something exists within a given unit of area.
Diffusion The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time.
Distance decay The diminishing in importance and eventual disappearance of a phenomenon with increasing distance from its origin.
Distribution Distribution
Environmental determinism A 19th early 20th century approach to the study of geography that argued that the general laws sought by human geographers could be found in the physical sciences. Geography was therefore the study of how the physical environment caused human activities.
Expansion diffusion The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process.
Formal region (or uniform or homogeneous region) An area in which everyone shares in one or more distinctive characteristics.
Functional (or nodal) region An area organized around a node or focal point.
GIS A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.
Global Positioning System (GPS) A system that determines the precise position of something on Earth through a series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
Globalization Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide in scope.
Greenvich Mean Time The time in that time zone encompassing the prime meridian, or 0° longitude.
Hearth The region from which innovative ideas originate.
Hierarchical religion A religion in which a central authority exercises a high degree of control.
International Date Line An arc that for the most part follows 180° longitude, although it deviates in several places to avoid dividing land areas.
Land Ordinance of 1785 A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Latitude The numbering system used to indicate the location of parallels drawn on a globe and measuring distance north and south of the equator (0°).
Location The position of anything on Earth's surface.
Longitude The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on a globe and measuring distance east and west of the prime meridian(0°).
Map A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it.
Mental map An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in a place and where places are located.
Meridian An arc drawn on a map between the North and South poles.
Parallel circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
Pattern Pattern
Physiological density The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Place A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
Polder Land created by the Dutch by draining water from an area.
Possibilism The theory that the physical environment may set limits on human actions, but people have the ability to adjust to the physical environment and choose a course of action from many alternatives.
Principal meridian A north-south line designated in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Projection The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
Region An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.
Regional (or cultural landscape) studies An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area.
Relocation diffusion The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another.
Remote sensing The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
Resource A substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
Scale Generally, the relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole, specifically the relationship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on Earth's surface.
Section A square normally 1 mile on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided townships in the United States into 36 sections.
Site The physical character of a place
Situation The location of a place relative to other places. Situation factors Location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory.
Space The physical gap or interval between two objects.
Space-time compression The reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems.
Stimulus diffusion The spread of an underlying principle, even though a specific characteristic is rejected.
Toponym The name given to a portion of Earth's' surface.
Township A square normally 6 miles on a side. The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided much of the United States into a series of townships.
Transnational corporation A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
Uneven development The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
Venacular region (or perceptual region) An area that people believe to exist as part of their cultural identity.
Anthropogenic Human-induced changes on the natural environment.
Cartography Theory and practice of making visual representations of the earth's surface in the form of maps.
Cultural ecology The study of the interactions between societies and the nat-ural environments they live in. Cultural landscape The human-modified natural landscape specifically con¬taining the imprint of a particular culture or society.
Earth system science Systematic approach to physical geography that looks at the interaction between the earth's physical systems and processes on a global scale.
Environmental geography The intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment and vice versa.
Eratosthenes The head librarian at Alexandria during the third century B.C.; he was one of the first cartographers. Performed a remarkably accurate com¬putation of the earth's circumference. He is also credited with coining the term "geography."
Fertile Crescent Name given to crescent-shaped area of fertile land stretch-ing from the lower Nile valley, along the east Mediterranean coast, and into Syria and present-day Iraq where agriculture and early civilization first began about 800
Geographical Information Systems A set of computer tools used to capture, store, transform, analyze, and display geographic data.
Global Positioning System A set of satellites used to help determine location anywhere on the earth's surface with a portable electronic device.
Idiographic Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place.
George Perkins Marsh Inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his clas¬sic work, Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action, provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions.
Natural landscape The physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities.
Nomothetic Concepts or rules that can be applied universally.
W. D. Pattison (think of Robert Pattinson, how his family has distinct traditions) He claimed that geography drew from four distinct traditions: the earth-science tradition, the culture-environment tradition, the locational tradition, and the area-analysis tradition.
Physical geography The realm of geography that studies the structures, processes, distributions, and change through time of the natural phenomena of the earth's surface.
Ptolemy Roman geographer-astronomer and author of Guide to Geography which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude.
Qualitative data Data associated with a more humanistic approach to geog-raphy, often collected through interviews, empirical observations, or the inter¬pretation of texts, artwork, old maps, and other archives.
Quantitative data Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association.
Quantitative revolution A period in human geography associated with the widespread adoption of mathematical models and statistical techniques.
Region A territory that encompasses many places that share similar attributes (may be physical, cultural, or both) in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere.
Regional geography Regional geography
Remote sensing Observation and mathematical measurement of the earth's surface using aircraft and satellites. The sensors include both photographic images, thermal images, multispectral scanners, and radar images.
Carl Sauer (Geographer from University of California) he defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental un graphical analysis.This landscape results from interaction between & the physical environment. Argued that virtually no land escaped alteration by human activities.
Sense of place Feelings evoked by people as a result of certain experiences and memories associated with a particular place.
Spatial perspective An intellectual framework that looks at the locations of specific phenomena, how and why that phenomena is , and, finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in other place
Sustainability The concept of using the earth's resources in such they provide for people's needs in the present without diminishing ability to provide for future generations.
Systematic geography The study of the earth's integrated systems instead of focusing on particular phenomena in a single place.
Thematic layers Individual maps of specific features that are of another in a Geographical Information System to understand spatial relationship.
Absolute distance The distance that can be measured with a standard unit length, such as a mile or kilometer.
Absolute location The exact position of an object or place, measured witl the spatial coordinates of a grid system.
Accessibility The relative ease with which a destination may be reached from some other place.
Azimuthal projection A map projection in which the plane is the most developable surface.
Breaking point The outer edge of a city's sphere of influence, used in the of retail gravitation to describe the area of a city's hinterlands that depend that city for its retail supply.
Cartograms A type of thematic map that transforms space such that the unit with the greatest value for some type of data is represented by largest relative area.
Choropleth map A thematic map that uses tones or colors to represent data as average values per unit area.
Cognitive map An image of a portion of the earth's surface that a person creates in his or her mind. Cognitive maps can include knowledge of actual locations and relationships between locations as well as person exceptions and preferences of particular places.
Complementarity The actual or potential relationship between two p usually referring to economic interactions.
Connectivity The degree of economic, social, cultural, or political connection between two places.
Contagious diffusion The spread of a disease, innovation, or cultural through direct contact with another-person or another place.
Coordinate system A standard grid, composed of lines of latitude and latitude, used to determine the absolute location of any object, place, or on the earth's surface.
Distance decay effect The decrease in interaction between two phen places, or people as the distance between them increases.
Dot maps Thematic maps that use points to show the precise locations specific observations or occurrences, such as crimes and car accidents.
Expansion diffusion The spread of ideas, innovations, fashion, or other phenomena to surrounding areas through contact and exchange.
Friction of distance A measure of how much absolute distance affects the interaction between two places.
Fuller projection A type of map projection that maintains the accurate size and shape of landmasses but completely rearranges direction such that the four cardinal directions-north, south, east, and west-no longer have any meanmg.
Geoid The actual shape of the earth, which is rough and oblate, or slightly squashed; the earth's circumference is longer around the equator then it is along the meridians, from north-south circumference.
Gravity model A mathematical formula that describes the level of interaction between two places, based on the size of their populations and their distance from each other.
Hazards Anything in the landscape, real or perceived, that is potentially threatening. Hazards are usually avoided in spatial behavior.
Hierarchical diffusion A type of diffusion in which something is transmitted between places because of something the two places have in common.
International Date Line The line of longitude that marks where each new day begins, centered on the 180th meridian.
Intervening opportunities (Definition too long, see Barrons for more) The idea that 1place has a demand for some good or service and 2places have a supply of equal price and quality,then the closer of the 2 suppliers to the buyer will represent an intervening opportunity, thereby blocking the 3rd from being able to share it
Isoline Map line that connects points of equal or very similar values.
Large-scale A relatively small ratio between map units and ground units. Large-scale maps usually have higher resolution and cover much smaller regions than small-scale maps.
Latitude The angular distance north or south of the equator, defined by lines of latitude, or parallels.
Law of retail gravitation Law that states that people will be drawn to larger cities to conduct their business because larger cities have a wider influence on the hinterlands that surround them.
Location charts On a map, a chart or graph that gives specific statistical information of a particular political unit or jurisdiction.
Longitude The angular distance east or west of the prime meridian, defined by lines of longitude, or meridians.
Map projection A mathematical method that involves transferring the earth's sphere onto a flat surface. This term can also be used to describe the type of map that results from the process of projecting. All map projections have dis¬tortions in either area, direction, d
Mercator projection A true conformal cylindrical map projection, the Mer¬cator projection is particularly useful for navigation because it maintains accurate direction. Mercator projections are famous for their distortion in area that makes landmasses at the poles appear ove
Meridian A line of longitude that runs north-south. All lines of longitude are equal in length and intersect at the poles.
Parallel An east-west line of latitude that runs parallel to the equator and that marks distance north or south of the equator.
Preference map A map that displays individual preferences for certain places.
Prime meridian An imaginary line passing through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, which marks the 0° line of longitude.
Proportional symbols map A thematic map in which the size of a choseR symbol-such as a circle or triangle-indicates the relative magnitude of some statistical value for a given geographic region.
Reference map A map type that shows reference information for a particula: place, making it useful for finding landmarks and for navigating.
Relative distance A measure of distance that includes the costs of overcoming the friction of absolute distance separating two places. Often relative distance describes the amount of social, cultural, or economic connectivity between two places.
Relative location The position of a place relative to places around it.
Relocation diffusion The diffusion of ideas, innovations, behaviors, from one place to another through migration.
Resolution A map's smallest discernable unit. If, for example, an object h to be one kilometer long in order to show up on a map, then that map's resolution is one kilometer.
Robinson projection Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each.
Scale The ratio between the size of an area on a map and the actual size of that same area on the earth's surface.
Site The absolute location of a place, described by local relief, landforms, and other cultural or physical characteristics.
Situation The relative location of a place in relation to the physical and cultural characteristics of the surrounding area and the connections and interdependencies within that system; a place's spatial context.
Small-scale Map scale ratio in which the ratio of units on the map to units on the earth is quite small. Small-scale maps usually depict large areas.
Spatial diffusion Spatial diffusion refers to the ways in which phenomena, such as technological innovations, cultural trends, or even outbreaks of dis¬ease, travel over space.
Thematic map A type of map that displays one or more variables-such as population, or income level-within a specific area.
Time-space convergence The idea that distance between some places is actu¬ally shrinking as technology enables more rapid communication and increased interaction between those places.
Topographic maps Maps that use isolines to represent constant elevations. If you took a topographic map out into the field and walked exactly along the path of an isoline on your map, you would always stay at the same elevation.
Topological space The amount of connectivity between places, regardless of the absolute distance separating them.
Transferability The costs involved in moving goods from one place to another.
Visualization Use of sophisticated software to create dynamic computer maps, some of which are three-dimensional or interactive.
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