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Vocab. Ch. 2

Development Orderly and lasting growth, adaptation, and change over the course of a lifetime.
Continuous theories of development Theories based on the belief that human development progresses smoothly and gradually from infancy to adulthood.
Discontinuous theories of development Theories describing human development as occurring through a fixed sequence of distinct, predictable stages governed by inborn factors.
Cognitive development Gradual, orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex and sophisticated.
Schemes Mental patterns that guide behavior.
Adaptation The process of adjusting schemes in response to the environment by means of assimilation and acommodation.
Accommodation Modifying existing schemes to fit new situations.
Equilibration The process of restoring balance between present understanding and new experiences.
Constructivism View of cognitive development that emphasizes the active role of learners in building their own understanding of reality.
Sensorimotor Stage Stage during which infants learn about their surroundings by using their senses and motor skills.
Reflexes Inborn, automatic responses to stimuli (e.g., eye blinking in response to light)
Object permanence The fact that an object exists even if it is out of sight.
Preoperational stage Stage at which children learn to represent things in the mind.
conservation The concept that certain properties of an object (such as weight) remain the same regardless of changes in other properties (such as length).
Centration Paying attention to only one aspect of an object or situation.
Reversibility The ability to perform a mental operation and then reverse one's thinking to return to the starting point.
egocentric Believing that everyone views the world as you do.
Concrete operational stage Stage at which children develop the capacity for logical reasoning and understanding of conservation but can use these skills only in dealing with familiar situations.
Inferred reality The meaning of stimuli in the context of relevant information.
Seriation Arranging objects in sequential order according to one aspect, such as size, weight, or volume.
transitivity A skill learned during the concrete operational stage of cognitive development in which individuals can mentally arrange and compare objects.
class inclusion A skill learned during the concrete operational stage of cog. devel. in which individuals can think simultaneously about a whole class of objects and about relationships among its subordinate classes.
formal operational stage stage at which one can deal abstractly with hypothetical situations and can reason logically.
Developmentally appropriate education Instruction felt to be adapted to the current development status of children (rather than to their age alone).
Sign system Symbols that cultures create to help people think, communicate, and solve problems.
self-regulation The ability to think and solve problems without the help of others.
private speech Children's self-talk, which guides their thinking and action; eventually internalized as silent inner speech.
zone of proximal development level of development immediately above a person's present level.
Scaffolding Support for learning and problem solving; might include clues, reminders, encouragement, breaking the problem down into steps, providing an example, or anything else that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner.
psychosocial theory A set of principles that relates social environment to psychological development.
psychosocial crisis According to Erikson, the set of critical issues that individuals must address as they pass through each of the eight life stages.
heteronomous morality In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage at which children think that rules are unchangeable and that breaking them leads automatically to punishment.
automomous morality In Piaget's theory of moral development, the stage at which a person understands that people make rules and that punishments are not automatic.
moral dilemmas In Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning, hypothetical situations that require a person to consider values of right and wrong.
Preconventional level of morality Stages 1 & 2 in Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning, in which individuals make moral judgments in their own interests.
Conventional level of Morality Stages 3 & 4 in Kohlbverg's model of moral reasoning, in which individuals make moral judgments in consideration of others.
Postconventional Level of Morality Stages 5 & 6 in Kohlberg's model of moral reasoning, in which individuals make moral judgments in relation to abstract principles.
Created by: LFalone