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Sociology Population

2nd period Tori and Jina

Population number of people living in an area at a particular time
Demography the area of sociology devoted to the study of human population
Birth rate most popular measure of birth in population
Fertility actual number of births occurring to women of childbearing age
Fecundity biological capability to bear children
Mortality the number of deaths in society
Death rate most popular measure of death in population
Infant mortality rate annual number of deaths among infants under 1 year per 1,000 live births in population
Life expectancy the average number of years a person born in a specific year is expected to live
Migration the movement of people from an area to another
Migration rate annual difference between in migration and out migration
Growth rate the rate at which the population is increasing
Doubling time the number of years necessary for a population to double in size at its current rate of growth
Malthusian theory a theory that predicted the population would soon reach astronomical numbers
Demographic Transition Theory a theory that states population patterns are tied to a society’s level of technological development
Zero population growth the point at which nearly equal birth rates and death rates produce a growth rate of zero
Family planning the conscious decision by couples to have a certain number of children
Urbanization a concentration of population in cities
City a permanent concentration of a relatively large number of people who are engaged mainly in non-farming activities
Overurbanization a situation in which more people live in a city than can be supported in terms of jobs and facilities
Urban ecology an approach that examines the relationship between people and the urban environment
Concentric Zone Model a model that shows that a typical industrial city spreads outward from the center, resulting in a series of circles or zones
Sector Model a model that shows that growth occurs in wedge-shaped sectors
Multiple Nuclei Model a model that shows that a city doesn’t develop around one center but many
Urban sprawl a phenomenon characterized by poorly planned development on the edge of cities and towns
Urban anomie Theory a theory stating that a city is an anonymous and unfriendly place and living there carries serious negative consequences for residents
Compositional Theory a theory that examined the ways in which a composition of a city’s population influences life in the city
Subcultural theory a theory that states cities encourage rather than discourage the formation of primary group relationships
Created by: daisukixdesu