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Science chap.22

Hormones and Chemical Control

adrenal glands one of a pair of ductless glands, located above the kidneys, consisting of a cortex, which produces steroidal hormones, and a medulla, which produces epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Adrenalin a commercial form of this substance, extracted from the adrenal glands of sheep and cattle, or synthesized: used chiefly as a heart stimulant, to constrict the blood vessels, and to relax the bronchi in asthma
androgen any substance, as testosterone or androsterone, that promotes male characteristics
auxin a class of substances that in minute amounts regulate or modify the growth of plants, esp. root formation, bud growth, and fruit and leaf drop.
cortisone a steroid hormone of the adrenal cortex, C21H28O5, active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism.
diabetes any of several disorders characterized by increased urine production
digestive gland any gland having ducts that pour secretions into the digestive tract, as the salivary glands, liver, and pancreas.
duct gland gland that secretes its juice into a tube liadine directly into some organ
ductless gland gland that secretes its juice directly into the blood
endocrine gland any of various glands, as the thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands, that secrete certain substances or hormones directly into the blood or lymph; ductless gland.
endocrine system the ductless glands and their hormones
estrogen any of several major female sex hormones produced primarily by the ovarian follicles of female mammals, capable of inducing estrus, developing and maintaining secondary female sex characteristics, and preparing the uterus for the reception of a fertilized
gastrin a hormone that stimulates the secretion of gastric juice.
growth hormone any substance that stimulates or controls the growth of an organism, esp. a species-specific hormone, as the human hormone somatotropin, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland
hormones any of various internally secreted compounds, as insulin or thyroxine, formed in endocrine glands, that affect the functions of specifically receptive organs or tissues when transported to them by the body fluids.
hypothalamus a region of the brain, between the thalamus and the midbrain, that functions as the main control center for the autonomic nervous system by regulating sleep cycles, body temperature, appetite
insulin .a polypeptide hormone, produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas, that regulates the metabolism of glucose and other nutrients
islet of Langerhans any of several masses of endocrine cells in the pancreas that secrete insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon
melatonin a hormone secreted by the pineal gland in inverse proportion to the amount of light received by the retina, important in the regulation of biorhythms: in amphibians, it causes a lightening of the skin
pancreas a gland, situated near the stomach, that secretes a digestive fluid into the intestine through one or more ducts and also secretes the hormone insulin
parathormons hormone produced by the parathyroid glands
parathyroid gland any of several small oval glands usually lying near or embedded in the thyroid gland
pineal gland a small, cone-shaped endocrine organ in the posterior forebrain, secreting melatonin and involved in biorhythms and gonadal development
pituitary gland a small, somewhat cherry-shaped double structure attached by a stalk to the base of the brain and constituting the master endocrine gland affecting all hormonal functions in the body
prolactin an anterior pituitary polypeptide hormone that stimulates lactation by the mammary glands at parturition in mammals, the activity of the crop in birds, and in some mammalian species the production of progesterone by the corpus luteum
puberty the period or age at which a person is first capable of sexual reproduction of offspring: in common law, presumed to be 14 years in the male and 12 years in the female
secretin a polypeptide hormone, produced in the small intestine, that activates the pancreas to secrete pancreatic juice
sex glands special glands that produce the sex cells and secrete the sex hormones; testes and ovaries
thymosin a hormone, produced by the thymus gland, that promotes the development of T cells from stem cells
thymus gland ductless gland located behind the breastbone
thyroid gland a two-lobed endocrine gland, located at the base of the neck that secretes two hormones that regulate the rates of metabolism, growth, and development
thyroxin the thyroid gland hormone that regulates the metabolic rate of the body.
Created by: daisy37311