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WAHS TAKS Science #4

*WAHS TAKS Science: Physics & Power

Force push or pull that one body exerts on another
Thrust Force the pushing that one body exerts on another
Net Force the sum total of several forces pushing or pulling with or against each other
Inertia the tendency of any body to resist any change in motion
Kinetic Energy energy in motion, based on mass and velocity
Potential Energy energy stored due to its position
Chemical Energy energy stored in chemical bonds
Gravitational Energy anything that could potentially fall (go into motion)
Electrical Energy the energy in electricity
Thermal Energy the energy in heat
Mechanical Energy the sum of potential and kinetic energy in a system
Friction force that opposes motion between two surfaces
Motion movement of a mass
Joules the basic unit for measuring Energy
First Law of Thermodynamics Law of Conservation of Mass/Energy; energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be transformed from one state to another
Second Law of Thermodynamics heat can spontaneously flow from a higher-temperature region to a lower-temperature region, but not the other way around
Nuclear Fission/Fusion two methods for converting mass into energy
Speed/Velocity how far something goes (Distance) in a certain amount of time (Time)
Momentum Mass times Velocity
Acceleration the Change in Velocity divided by Time
Work Force times Distance
Power Work divided by Time
Newton’s First Law of Motion "An object in motion will stay in motion and an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted upon by an external force"
Newton’s Second Law of Motion "Force equals mass times acceleration"
Newton’s Third Law of Motion "To every action there is an equal and opposite reaction"
Machine Efficiency tools used to reduce work load, or force
Levers a bar that is free to run about a fixed point
Pulleys a grooved wheel with a rope, chain, or cable
Wheels & Axles two wheels of different sizes that rotate together
Ramps/Inclined Planes sloping surfaces that reduce the energy workload
Screw an inclined plane wrapped in a spiral around a center post
Wedge an inclined plane with two sloping sides to re-direct force
Motors compound machines, made up of several simple machines
Waves a repeated disturbance or movement that transfers energy through matter or space
Waveform Properties amplitude (the energy carried by a wave) and frequency (how many wavelengths pass a fixed point every second)
Waveform Parts crests (top) and troughs (bottom)
Echo Formation producing sound waves that are reflected back to their origin
Reflection when a wave bounces off a surface at the exact same (but opposite) angle
Refraction the bending of a wave when it moves (changes speed) through a different stage of matter (gas or liquid, usually)
Diffraction when an object causes a wave to change direction and bend around it
Specular Reflection the mirror-like reflection of light/wave from a surface, in which light from a single incoming direction (a ray) is reflected into a single outgoing direction
Diffuse Reflection where incoming light is reflected in a broad range of directions.
Interference when two or more waves overlap or combine to form a new wave
Constructive interference the waves add together
Destructive Interference the waves subtract from each other
Polarization waves vibrating in only one direction
Resonance when an object vibrates by absorbing energy at its natural frequency
Magnification curved surfaces (lenses) that change the appearance of light
Convex a lens that is curved outward
Concave a lens that is curved inward
Thermal relating to heat energy
Movement of Heat in Matter Solids (slower movement of heat energy), Liquids (faster movement), Gases (fastest, easiest movement)
Convection the transfer of energy in a fluid by the movement of heated particles
Conduction the transfer of energy through direct contact of particles
Radiation the transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
Insulation material that does not allow heat to move through it easily
Transparent vs. Opaque see-through versus can’t-see-through
Energy Sources solar, water, wind, geothermal, agricultural (plants alive), biomass (plants processed), waves/tides, nuclear, human
Batteries storage centers for DC energy/electricity
Created by: macespace