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WAHS TAKS Science #2

*WAHS TAKS Science: People & Organisms

Circulatory heart and network that carries blood for oxygen and nutrients
Digestive stomach and organs that digest and transport nutrients
Nervous brain, spine, and nerves for central control of body
Endocrine glands, for metabolism, growth, and internal balance
Reproductive organs/glands for producing new life
Integumentary skin and hair for protection and temperature control
Skeletal bones, the framework of the body
Respiratory lungs and organs that supply oxygen and remove carbon dioxide
Muscular muscles, for body and organ motion
Excretory organs that remove waste products from the body
Immune aka lymphatic system, protects body from infection
Anatomy the science of the structure of living organisms
Physiology the science of the functions within living organisms
Embryology the branch of biology that studies the formation and early development of living organisms
Phylogeny the study of the evolutionary history of a species
Taxonomy the classification of organism into groups
Taxonomic Ranks Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
Autotrophic an organism capable of synthesizing its own food from inorganic substances, using light or chemical energy
Heterotrophic an organism that cannot synthesize its own food and is dependent on complex organic substances for nutrition
Omnivores eat both plants and animal flesh
Herbivores plant eaters
Carnivores flesh eaters
Xylem (for water) & phloem (for food) the plant plumbing system
Spores seeds, provide protective shell for gametes
Gametes sex cells (egg/sperm, embryo/zygote)
Roots absorb water and minerals, anchor the plant
Stems support framework for leaves and branches, transport nutrients and water throughout the plant
Cones & fruit carry seeds
Glucose/Dextrose blood sugar, from plant sap and fruit
Sucrose common table sugar, from juice, fruit, and roots
Fructose found in honey, fruit, and green plants like corn
Lactose found in milk
Galactose milk and yogurt
Maltose starch, found in beer and malt
Nutrients a substance that provides nourishment for growth or metabolism
Nutrient sources plants absorb nutrients from the soil (minerals/inorganics), and animals obtain nutrients from ingested foods
Metabolism chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life; provide energy for sustaining life and growth
Anabolism the breakdown of substances for the storage of energy
Catabolism the metabolic process that breaks down substances for the release of energy
Trophic Levels the feeding levels of living organisms (Producers/Consumers/Decomposers)
Trophic Energy Transfers only 10% of energy transfers through each food chain level, the rest is lost as heat
Food Chains the line of energy through links in a food chain, or trophic levels
Food Webs the interconnected feeding relationships between organisms
Food Pyramids the food energy available at each trophic level
Ecosystem interactive cyclical environment
Abiotic non-living parts of an ecosystem– temperature, soil, weather
Biotic living organisms in an ecosystem
Ecosystem Interaction Cycles Water, Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus
Biomass a measure of the total dry mass of the organisms in an ecosystem
Predation those organisms who consume (prey on) others, killing them before eating
Parasitism those organism who consume others while the ‘host’ is still alive
Commensalism symbiotic relationship between two organisms of different species in which one derives some benefit while the other is unaffected
Mutualism association between organisms of two different species in which each member benefits
Migration movement of organisms, usually for survival purposes
Extinction the elimination of a specific group of organisms
Speciation evolutionary formation of new biological species, usually by the division of a single species into two or more genetically distinct ones
Diversity genetic changes to an organism for the purpose of adaptation or survival
Adaptation anatomy, physiology or behavior changes that help organisms survive
Behavior anything an animal does in response to a stimulus in the environment
Fossils remains of once-living things preserved in earth’s rocks (usually sedimentary)
Created by: macespace