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WAHS TAKS Science #1

*WAHS TAKS Science: Tests, Cells, & DNA

Hypothesis an educated guess about what might happen in an experiment
Theory a general explanation of observations about the natural world
Postulates something assumed without proof as being self-evident or generally accepted
Dependent Variable y axis, variable that responds/changes as a result of the manipulated one, measure/observe this one
Independent Variable x axis, manipulated/changed variable in an experiment
Control baseline measurement, a standard used to compare experimental results
Validity whether an experiment really measures what it is supposed to
Reliability whether repeated experiments produce the same results
Cell smallest living unit of an organism; human cells have a nucleus, bacteria do not
Virus non-living particle, does not grow or move, but CAN reproduce with help of a living cell
Virus-related diseases common cold, influenza, smallpox, warts, AIDS
Bacteria a prokaryote, simplest of all living things, can produce foods & antibiotics, but also diseases
Bacteria shapes three basic shapes: spheres/cocci, rods/bacilli, and spirals/spirilli
Bacteria-related diseases gums and bone diseases, strep throat, pneumonia, diphtheria
Pathogens any agent that can cause disease
Antigens any substance (toxins or enzymes) that stimulates an immune response in the body (the production of antibodies)
Antibiotic a product that kills or inhibits growth of microorganisms like bacteria
Antibodies proteins produced in the blood in response to the presence of an antigen, making them harmless or destroyed
Flagellum long hair-like structures in bacteria that enable movement
Host Cells animal or plant cells where another organism lives
Nucleus the command center of a cell, controls its activities
Prokaryotic organism cells having no nucleus, or membrane-bound structure
Eukaryotic organism cells with nuclei, usually multi-cellular
Organelle a cell structure that performs a specific function
Chloroplasts a plant-cell organelle which uses energy in sunlight to make glucose sugar
Photosynthesis the process of chloroplasts making glucose for an energy source
Mitochondria an organelle that breaks down food molecules to provide energy, often found in muscle cells
Ribosomes the cell ‘factory’ (organelle) where protein is made, part of the cell structure that mRNA attaches to
Cytoplasm portion of a eukaryotic cell outside the nucleus; contains all the organelles
Monerans one-celled organisms like amoeba and bacteria, no nucleus
Protists one-celled or many-celled, like algae; not a plant, animal or fungus
Homeostasis the stable internal state of a cell
Gene/Genetics study of the sections of DNA on a chromosome that direct the making of specific proteins; they determine individual traits
Nucleic Acids complex molecules that store information in cells in code form
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, a molecule found in the cells of all organisms, contains genetic information that controls cell functions
Nucleotide the small units of a DNA Molecule, with these components - phosphate groups, sugar (deoxyribose), nitrogen base sequences
Nitrogen Bases in DNA Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C) – they hold the genetic information; form a ring structure
Complementary Nitrogen Bases G + C, A + T
RNA ribonucleic acid, like DNA but has Uracil (U) instead of Thymine.
mRNA messenger RNA, carries messages from DNA to the rest of the cell
Codons the mRNA info organized into 3-letter blocks, like words; there are 64 codons (61 are amino acids)
Stop Codon any of three codons (UAA, UAG, and UGA) in mRNA that do not code for an amino acid, so they stop protein manufacturing
tRNA transfer RNA, matches specific Codons to their corresponding Amino Acids
Chromosomes a threadlike linear strand of DNA and proteins that carries the genes and hereditary information
Mitosis cell division producing two daughter cells identical to parent cell
Meiosis cell division producing daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell
Replication the process of a cell dividing, and duplicating two identical DNA molecules
Transcription the process of copying DNA genetic information into mRNA
Translation the process of producing a protein from mRNA
Mutation a ‘mistake’ in a DNA sequence; could be useful (survival) OR harmful (sickle-cell anemia)
Phenotype the way an organism looks
Genotype the gene combination of an organism
Parthenogenesis a form of reproduction in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual; “virgin birth”
Created by: macespace