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Sci 7

Structures and forces

Structure any structure that provides support
Structure strength the capacity of a structure to support both the load of its own materials plus any additional load applied to it
Structure stability the ability of a structure to maintain its position even when it’s being acted on by forces; being balanced, difficult to topple over
Force a push or a pull that tends to cause an object to change it movement or shape; force is measured in newtons law; (ex) of force would be pushing a scooter
Solid Structure structure made of a solid piece (, or solid combination of pieces) of strong material; (ex) a cement pad, it has little or no shape inside
Frame Structure structure consisting of a rigid arrangement of parts joined together; (ex) a skeleton
Shell Structure structure with a solid outer surface (which may be rounded or flat in shape) and a hollow inner area; (ex) a Styrofoam cup
Combination structure two are using or more of the three types to improve on its function
Function : the use or purpose of a structure; for (Ex) the function of a thermos is to keep a drink cool on a hot day
Inukshuk: a stone marker built by Inuit to mark hunting grounds or food cashes
Aesthetics: a pleasing appearance or effect that an object has because of its design
Stonehenge: a prehistoric monument, the ancient monument on the south berry plane of England
tpoic two topic two
Newton: : unit for measuring force; 1N equals the amount of needed to hold up a mass of 100g (1N = 100g)
Mass: amount of mater in an object (usually measured in grams and kilograms)
External force : force applied to an object by something else; for (ex), a person sitting o a chair
Center of gravity imaginary point in an object were downward force of gravity acts; for (ex) point at which a ruler is balanced on your finger
Symmetry: : balanced arrangement of mass on opposite side of a line or plane, or around a center axis
Load : external force acting on an object; load can be measured by weight
Static load: always there (include materials that make up that structure) (ex) bridge materials
Dynamic load moving or changing force acting on an object; for (ex) downward force of cars moving over the bridge
Beam bridge: most common (flat bridge supported at each end) (longer ones may have piers) or vertical supports
Truss bridge: bridge supported by triangular shape supports (trusses)
Suspension bridge : bridge having its own roadway hung from large cables supported between tall towers
Arch bridge heavy duty bridge made of stone or wood formed into an arch shape
Performance requirements conditions that a structure, once it is build and in operation, must meet to show it is performing to certain standards
Internal force force applied by a part of a structure on another of that same structure
Compressions force that acts to squeeze an object or push parts within an object together
Tension force that stretches and pulls apart and object
Shear force that acts to push parts that are in contact with each other in opposite direction (ex) tearing paper apart
Complementary forces 2 or more forces acting on an object at the same time (ex) bending iron – tension and compression work to bend the iron
I – beam beam that has a cross – section in the shape of an I to reduce the mass but not strength; for (ex) types of a rod
Girder: long structure in the form of a hollow rectangular prism; (also known as a box beam) and plus a box beam – hollow in the centre (end
Truss framework of beams joined together usually in a triangle shape for (ex) the force of an elastic being pulled
Cantilever: structure that is supported at only on end or point; for (ex), as found in a cantilever bridge, such as stoney trail bridge
Column: solid upright support structure in the shape of a cylinder ( a vertical beam)
Structure stress: occurs when external force and internal force act on a structure and gradually weaken it
Structure fatigue permanent change to structure due to internal forces
Structure failure can no longer stand up to stress and collapses
tpoic three topic three
Deformation a change of a shape in any structural component, or in the structure itself because the force is resists the force acting on it
Flexibility: a force of one surface acting across another
Joint where 2 or more parts are connected
Fixed joint: parts connected but won’t move
Movable joint parts connected and have flexibility
topic four topic four
Margin of saftey parts connected and have flexibility
Corrugation: forming material into a wave like shape to strengthen it
Lamination: gluing layers together to strengthen a material
Titanium: a strong light weight, corrosion-resistant slivery metallic element
Created by: tweety18