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comm exam 3

questions of fact a question about the truth or falsity of an assertion. ex who will win the super bowl
organizing questions of fact usually organized topically. 1. specific purpose 2. central idea 3. main points
questions of value a question about the worth, rightness, morality of an idea of action, ex what is the best movie of all time.
organizing questions of value almost always organized topically. 1st main point: establish standards for your value judgment. 2nd main point applying those standards to the subject of your speech.
questions of policy a question about whether a specific course or action should or should not be taken, ex decide whether to vote for or against political candidate
what are the basic issues in analyzing a question of policy need (is there a serious problem or need), plan(does speaker have plan to solve the problem), practicality(will speakers plan solve problem or create more serious problem)
casual reasoning relationship between cause and effects, a cause of force that is sufficient and necessary to produce a particular outcome
when should you use two sided appeal when the audience is? Initially disagrees with your position, is intelligent or highly educated, will be expected to counter-arguments
methods of presenting a two sided appeal 1. present your case. 2. clearly state the counter-argument. 3. refute the counter-argument with sound reasoning and evidence.
what are the factors of credibility competence (intelligence, expertise, knowledge), character(sincerity, trustworthiness, concern for audience), dynamism(bold, frank, active, enthusiastic)
7 rhetorical strategies 1. explain your expertise 2. cite many credible sources 3. cite credible sources respected by audience 4. establish common ground with audience 5. using sound reasoning 6. using language intensity 7. using sincere and enthusiastic delivery
7 rhetorical strategies match to factor of credibility: explain your expertise competence
7 rhetorical strategies match to factor of credibility: cite many credible sources competence, character
7 rhetorical strategies match to factor of credibility: cite credible sources respected by audience character
7 rhetorical strategies match to factor of credibility: establishing common ground with the audience character
7 rhetorical strategies match to factor of credibility: using sound reasoning compentence, character
7 rhetorical strategies match to factor of credibility: using language intensity character, dynamism
7 rhetorical strategies match to factor of credibility: using sincere and enthusiastic delivery character, dynamism
four general strategies for cultivating emotions 1. use language intensity (neg or positive) 2. use vivid extended examples with imagery 3. use sincere and enthusiastic delivery 4. use emothionally laden visual aids
syllogism formal logic consisting of a major premise, minor premise, and a conclusion. ex excessive sal is unhealthy(major premise) fast food contains a lot of salt(minor premise) excessive salt is unhealthy (conclusion)
three types of credibility initial, derived, terminal
Justin after these you knew them pretty well Justin study ones above first, the others you know pretty well
burden of proof obligation facing a persuasive speaker to prove that a change from current policy is necessary
creating a common ground speaker connects himself with the values, attitudes or experiences of audience
cognitive dissonance you don't want to do this in persuasive speaking, makes people feel uncomfortable. this is where you have a prior experience to make you believe one way, then you have a new experience that contradicts that belief, and you can't come to grips with it.
basic premise of motivational appeals based on premise that behaviors are goal driven
analogical reasoning compares 2 similar cases to draw the conslusion that what is true in one case will be true in the other.
inductive reasoning from specific to general, avoid hast generalizations, jumping to conclusions, important to reinforce inductive reasoning with stats and expert testimony
deductive reasoning from general to specific
either-or false dilemma a fallacy that forces listeners to choose between 2 alternative when more than two alternatives exist.
the fallacies are: bandwagon, slippery slope, red herring, adhominem, either-or
ad hominem attacks person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute
red herring intorduces irrelevant issue to divert attention from subject
slippery slope assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
bandwagon assume because popular therefore good or correct.
invalid analogy two cases being compared are not essentially alike.
false cause an error when a speaker assumes because one event follows another, the first even is the cause of the second
hasty generalization an error speaker jumps to a general conclusion on basis of insufficient evidence
make clear the point of your evidence be sure listener understands the point you are trying to make.
use novel evidence more likely to persuade if new to audience
monroe's motivated sequence organize persuasive speech that seek immediate action. 5 steps, attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, action.
initial, derived, terminal credibility initial - credibility of speaker before starts to speak, derived - everything speaker says to add to credibility, terminal - credibility of speaker at end of speech.
target audience group speaker most wants to persuade
speeches to gain passive agreement vs immediate action passive agreement - convince audience don't encourage them to take action. immediate action - convince audience to take action in support of given policy.
problem-solution order 1st main point - demonstrate need, 2nd - explain plan for solving problems
problem-cause solution order 1st main point identify problem 2nd analyze the causes of the problem, 3rd presents a solution to the problem
comparative advantages order method of organizing persuasive speeches in which the main point explains why a speaker's solution to a problem is preferabel to the other proposed solutions.
Created by: PLJeff